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Introduction

In the present scenario, a concept such as organizational behaviour is considered as vital for success and growth of companies. In simpler terms, organizational behaviour is defined as a study which outlines the way in which people within a company interacts with each other with an objective to accomplish the goals (Cummings and Worley, 2014). One of the main and most important benefits associated with the concept of organizational behaviour is that it helps businesses in understanding the causes and effects of individuals behaving in a certain way within the workplace.

The present study is based on Little Social, a small restaurant located in London. The overall impact and influence of power, politics and culture on the behaviour of people working in Little Social has been outlined in this study. Apart from this, the application of different concepts and philosophies linked with organizational behaviour is also carried out in the present study.  

LO1 P1 Influence of power, culture and politics on individual and team behaviour

It can be expressed that the culture, politics and power of an organization have a direct influence on the overall action and behaviour of people working in a company. In simpler terms, organizational culture is defined as the set of values and beliefs which influences the action and behaviour of employees (Woodcock, 2017). Furthermore, organizational culture is classified into four different categories which are person culture, task culture, power culture and role culture. Considering the case of power culture, it can be asserted that power culture is the one in which the power within the workplace is concentrated within a few hands.

The impact of such culture is that individuals in such culture emphasize on achieving more outcomes because the workers in such culture are judged on the basis of the performance delivered by them. Power culture is considered as effective because it directly contributes to enhancing the speed and effectiveness of the decision making. However, it can be critically argued that the level of politics within power culture is very high and the politics directly contributes in affecting the behaviour of people within Little Social in a negative sense. On the other side of this, it can be argued that role culture is also practised in organizations and it is kind of culture which is developed on the basis of rules and regulations.

Handys Model of Organizational culture

Every person working within a role culture is clearly aware of his/her roles and responsibilities within the organization (Miner, 2015). The power within such a culture is distributed among the employees on the basis of their position and responsibilities within Marks & Spencer’s. The degree of politics is somewhat low, and therefore, individual’s behaviour is positively affected because of the same. In task culture, the management emphasizes on forming various teams according to different projects and tasks assigned to them.

In task culture, the power is mainly controlled by the leader of the team and the distribution of power is in the hands of a team leader (Burke and Noumair, 2015). In person culture, people working in Little Social perceive themselves as superior to others, and a high level of politics exists within such culture. The impact of such a culture is that it results in influencing the behaviour of people at work in a negative sense. It also affects the morale and motivational level of employee in a negative sense.

On the other hand, according to Edgar Schein Model of organizational culture, the direct mechanism such as status, behaviour, attitude and opinion of people working in a company has a direct impact on areas such as culture within the organization. Furthermore, organizational culture consists of three major levels which are discussed below as:

Artefacts and Symbols: It can be expressed that artefacts and symbols are visible elements which directly contributes to marking the surface of a business enterprise. The artefacts and symbols include structure, logo, overall architecture and corporate clothing of an organization. Artefacts and symbols of Little Social are visible to both employees and other external parties. 

Espoused values: The espoused values in an organization include elements such as code of conduct, regulations, values, standards and rules. The behaviour of an individual can be negatively affected in situations where the basic assumptions in an organizational are not in line with the ideas of management (Woodcock, 2017). 

Basic underlying assumptions: The basic underlying assumptions within an organization consist of the unconscious behaviour of people working in Little Social.  

Edgar Schein Model of Organizational Culture

According to the model presented above, the behaviour of Little Social employees can be positively affected when the management emphasize on carrying out discussion with employees in context of the need and importance of changes.  

M1 Critically analyse of  culture, politics and power of an organisation

As per the view of Schein, (2015) factor such as organizational culture has a direct impact behaviour and performance of individual and team. Cultures which are directed towards team working and bringing harmony directly contribute in encouraging the behaviour of people working in Little Social in the positive sense. On the other side of this Lacerenza et al. (2018) have critically argued that workplace cultures can have a direct impact on the behaviour and performance of individuals and teams working in the organization. The statement can be justified by the fact that cultures in which power is concentrated in few hands directly result in affecting the moral and motivational level of people working in a team.

According to Porter et al. (2018) power when distributed equally results in enhancing the performance and behaviour of the team and its members in a positive sense. On the contrary to this, Shuffler et al. (2018) have critically argued that it is not necessary that equal distribution of power can result in improving the performance of the team and its members. Apart from this, politics within the workplace also have a considerable impact on the overall behaviour and performance of people working in Marks & Spencer’s. For instance, office politics can result in enhancing interpersonal, communication and negotiation skills among the people working in the organization. However, Jesinoski et al. (2016) have critically argued that too much politics can directly result in affecting the performance of employees and teams in a negative sense by creating a high degree of frustration among them.

LO2P2 Content and process theories of motivation

In today’s corporate era, motivation has emerged as one of the most significant aspects within the workplace as it directly results in creating a high degree of satisfaction among people working in an organization (Pinder, 2014). Motivation is also termed as an important characteristic which helps in the accomplishment of individual and organizational goals in the best possible manner. The concept of motivation is considered as critical because it is the drive that pushes employees in giving their best towards the accomplishment of Little Social goals and objectives. The theories of motivation can be further classified into two major categories which are content and process theories of motivation. The role of content theory is to outline the key factors which motivate the employees whereas process theory emphasizes on highlight why and how motivation within employees occurs (Luthans et al. 2015).

Maslow Hierarchy of needs is a content theory of motivation and the theory reflects the fact that companies are required to identify and meet the different needs of people working at different levels within an organization. Little Social will be first required to satisfy the basic needs of employees which are physiological, safety and security need to motivate its staff members (Bolman and Deal, 2017). Furthermore, people working at middle and higher level within the organization can be motivated by satisfying the needs such as love and belongings, self-esteem and self-actualization.   

Maslow Hierarchy of needs

 On the other side of this, Herzberg two factor theory outlines that there are certain factors which act as a motivator and there are some factors which act as a de-motivators among employees. In order to motivate employees, Little Social is required to emphasize on hygienic factors such as providing the adequate pay, appropriate working conditions and taking care of employee safety and security (Wagner III and Hollenbeck, 2014). In addition to this, the selected business enterprise is also required to focus on motivational factors such as providing authority and responsibilities to employees.

The process theory of motivation such as Vroom expectancy theory; outlines the fact that there are three major factors which are mentioned below as:

Expectancy: It is a factor according to which a person working Little Social believes that placing more efforts and resources will result in providing more success and better outcomes.

Instrumentality: It is a factor in which the employees working in the selected organizations believes that there is a strong connection between their personal goal and activities assigned to them. 

Valance: It can be termed as the overall degree or extent to which rewards and success are valued by people working in an organization (Robbins and Judge, 2014).

According to the selected process theory of motivation, the multiplication of instrumentality, valance and expectancy is required to enhance the moral and motivation level of people working in Marks & Spencer’s. The management of the selected organization is also required to take care of the fact that the employees are well aware of the connection between performance and efforts placed by them towards the accomplishment of their personal and organizational goals and objectives (Gelfand et al. 2017).   

M2 Effective application of behavioural motivational theories, concepts and models

It can be evaluated that the behaviour of people working in Little Social is directly influenced by the application of various models, concepts and theories linked with motivation. For instance, Little Social can implement Herzberg two factor theory of motivation with an objective to influence the overall behaviour of people working in the organization. As per this theory, the degree of employee motivation within Little Social will be affected by two major factors which are motivators and hygienic factors (Borkowski, 2015). To motivate the staff members, the selected organization will need to focus on areas such as improving employee recognition, the status of the job and providing opportunities to employees in the context of growth and development.

On the other side of this, it can be critically argued that the brand will not be able to achieve a high degree of employee motivation only by concentrating on motivator factors. Here, Little Social will also be required to focus on different hygienic factors such as working conditions provided to the staff members, taking care of employee health and safety and developing the satisfactory relationship between employee and their respective supervisors (Carpenter et al. 2014). To enhance the overall degree of employee motivation, Little Social will need to ensure that high hygiene and high motivation exist within the workplace.    

D1 Critically evaluate the relationship between culture, politics, power and motivation

It can be evaluated that factors such a culture, power, politics and motivation are directly related with each other, and it is required by Little Social to emphasize on all these factors. Culture is related to politics, power and motivation because culture plays a very important role in determining the other three factors which are mentioned above (Miner, 2015). The statement can be justified by the fact that culture such as power culture encourages a high degree of politics within the workplace as the power is concentrated in few hands. It can also be expressed that such culture directly results in affecting the morale and motivational level of the employees.

On the other side of this, it can be critically argued that culture such as people culture is the one in power is equally distributed, and the degree of politics is also very low in such a culture. The moral and motivation level of people working in Little Social can be positively affected because of the same (Blader et al. 2017). At the time of carrying out its business operations and activities, it is required by Little Social to make sure that factors such as power, politics and culture are directed towards attaining a high degree of satisfaction and motivation among the employees. 

LO3P3 Demonstrate an understanding of what makes an effective team

It can be expressed that development of effective team within a small scale restaurant such as Little Social is not an easy task and there are wide ranges of factors which needs to be taken into consideration during the entire process of developing effective team (Lazaroiu, 2015). According to the Tuckman model of team development, Little Social will be required to emphasize on four different stages which are mentioned below as:

Forming: It is the first stage of developing an effective team, and in this stage, most of the members of the team will be polite and positive. The team members of Little Social in this stage will be excited to become aware of the roles and responsibilities within the team. The leader within Little Social here will play a critical role in this stage because the leader will make other members aware of their roles and responsibilities (Belschak et al. 2015).

Storming: In this stage, the people in the team of Little Social will emphasize on pushing their boundaries, and it is considered as one of the most critical stages in the development of the team. The stage is critical because here the chance of disputes and conflicts between members in team increases. The differences in working style and culture of employees can become the primary cause of conflicts between team members of Little Social.

Norming: The stage is important because here, the members of a team within Little Social will emphasize resolving the differences and disputes within each other. Here, the members of the team will support each other and provide constructive feedback so that their overall performance can be enhanced (Borkowski, 2015). 

Performing: It is the stage in which members in the team of Little Social will carry out the smooth and effective flow of all assigned tasks and activities without any friction. It is a process in which the development of team members will be carried out.

Adjourning: It is also considered as a closing stage in which the aim or goal of the team is accomplished and the management with discontinuing the team.

According to the concept of Belbin team role, people working in a team have nine different roles, and the roles are mentioned below as:

Action-oriented roles

Shaper: Shaper is termed as the member in the team whose role is to carry out improvement in the team within Little Social in the best and every possible manner (Leana and Meuris, 2015). A shaper is also a person who plays a vital role in identifying the best and most effective approach to solve the problem and issues faced by team members.

Implementer: These are the individuals who are responsible for getting the things done within provided deadline and resources from the management of Little Social. The role of implementer is also critical in turning ideas into practical plans and strategies.

Complete finisher: These people are responsible for ensuring that the tasks and activities assigned to team members are completed in a satisfactory manner and without omissions.

People-oriented roles

Coordinator: The coordinator in the team within Little Social is responsible for providing adequate directions and guidance to the members of the team (Colarelli and Arvey, 2015).

Team worker: I am working as a waiter in Little Social, and I am also playing the role of team work in the team. As a team worker, I am responsible for providing the required support and assistance to the team members with an objective to make sure that other people in the team are working together or not.

Resource investigator: These individuals are responsible for exploring different alternatives and options which can be taken into consideration to enhance the overall effectiveness of the team.

Through oriented roles

Plant: The individual performing the role of the plant in Little Social is responsible for coming up with new approaches and ideas. These people in the team are also considered as introvert, and they prefer to work alone (Effelsberg and Solga, 2015).

Monitor evaluator: The monitor evaluate is a person in a team of Little Social, and this person is responsible for carrying out the analysis and evaluation of the ideas and suggestions provided by other team members.

Specialist: These are the individuals who have special knowledge or expertise in a particular area, and the role of specialists is to provide their expert opinion on different aspects of team working within Little Social.    

It can be expressed that there are certain factors which promote and hinder the effectiveness of the team and these factors need to be taken into consideration by management and team of Little Social. Emotional intelligence within each member of the team is one of the major factors which enhance the overall effectiveness of a team (Pentland and Harem, 2015). In addition to this, the sharing of common goals and objective is also a factor which results in improving the effectiveness of team working in Little Social. On the other side of this, it can be argued that inappropriate communication among members in the team is one of the most significant factors which can result in creating obstacles in the functioning of a team (Klotz et al. 2018). Apart from this, ineffective understanding of roles and responsibilities and lack of conflict management strategies are some other factors which directly results in creating complications or barriers in enhancing the effectiveness of team working in Little Social.

M3 Analyse relevant team and group development theories

Tuckman Team development theory is considered as one of the most useful and effective theories which can support in the development of dynamic cooperation within Little Social. It can be analyzed that the selected theory is useful because it consists of simple and easy stages which can support in the development of an effective team within Little Social. Furthermore, the theory is also effective because it can provide the management of selected restaurant with adequate and proper guidance to carry out the development of the team (Gagne, 2018). On the other side of this, it can be critically argued that the selected theory is only useful in developing small teams within an organization (Graham et al. 2015). It can also be expressed that the use of this theory in the development of large teams within Little Social is less effective.

LO4P4 Apply concepts and philosophies of OB

According to Chen et al. (2016) organization behaviour (OB) is defined as the study which outlines the way in which people in an organization interact and behave in different situations and structures. According to the concept of OB, the study of individual behaviour within the workplace is based on two different elements which are nature of people in the organization and nature of the organization itself (Kumari and Thapliyal, 2017). Furthermore, it can be expressed that the nature of people is affected by various factor such as a person as a whole, individual differences and perception of an individual. Value of person and motivated behaviour are some other factors which influence the nature of people in an organization. On the other side of this, the nature of organizational is affected and influenced by factors such as mutual interest, social systems and ethics within the workplace.

According to the Kurt Lewin Model of Leadership, leadership is defined as the act of leading and motivating people to accomplish the common goals and objectives of an organization. Furthermore, according to the selected model, styles of leadership are classified into three major categories which are:

A) Autocratic: It can be defined as the style of leadership in which the power is concentrated in the hands of leader and the other team members working in the organization are not provided with an opportunity to share their inputs and ideas (Nicklin and Spector, 2016). Considering the case of Little Social, it can be expressed that if the restaurant applies this style of leadership, then a high degree of dissatisfaction will be developed among the employees as their views and opinions will not be encouraged and considered by the leader. However, it can be argued that the benefit of this style of leadership is that it will provide the leader working in Little Social with an opportunity to make fast and effective decisions.   

B) Democratic: Democratic is a style of leadership which is also considered as one of the most effective and commonly used styles of leadership (Lindebaum and Geddes, 2016). As per this style, the views and opinions of other people working in Little Social are encouraged by leaders in the process of decision making and strategy formulation. The advantage of this style is that it helps in creating a high degree of satisfaction among the workers. 

C) Laissze faire: It is also considered as a delegative style of leadership and here, the leader working in an organization emphasizes on placing the hands off from the leadership and management (Lu, 2014). The employees working in Little Social are left free and encouraged to make decisions on their own according to this style of leadership.

In the group activity, the members of the group have employed a democratic style of leadership by encouraging and considering the views, opinions and suggestions of people in the team during the process of team decision making. The rationale behind using this leadership style is that it has resulted in enhancing the degree of satisfaction and motivation of the team members. However, it can be critically argued that the main and biggest limitation associated with this style of leadership is that it has resulted in slowing down the process of decision-making (Punnett, 2015). As a team, we have missed several potential opportunities because of the democratic style of leadership. Apart from this, the selected leadership style does not guarantee the best possible solution, and this is another major drawback associated with this style of leadership.   

M4 Justify and evaluate a range of concepts and philosophies

The concept of organizational behaviour has the potential to affect the behaviour of people working in Little Social in both positive and negative sense (Short et al. 2018). According to the nature of people concept of OB, the individual differences should be respected and considered by the manager working in Little Social as it can influence the behaviour of people in a positive sense. In addition to this, factor such as motivated behaviour also influences the overall performance and behaviour of people at the workplace (Holmlund et al. 2016).

The statement can be justified by the fact that less motivated people working in Little Social are not able to deliver satisfactory performance and their behaviour is also negatively affected because of the same. A concept such as nature of organization also has the ability to influence the behaviour of people working in Little Social. The behaviour of employees in Little Social can be negatively affected in situations if the mutual interest of people and the restaurant is not mutual.

D2 Critically analyse and evaluate the relevance of team development theories

The team development theory such as Tuckman theory can play a vital role in influencing the behaviour of employees working in Little Social. The theory can support the selected restaurant by providing information and direction about the stages which can be used for the development of an effective team (Kong, 2016). The theory can also be taken into consideration to enhance the nature of people, the nature of the organization and in developing the mutual relationship between the same. On the other side of this, team development theory such as Belbin team role can also be taken into consideration to influence the behaviour of people working in Little Social. The theory is very effective because it will provide Little Social with an opportunity to assign roles and responsibilities to team members based on their skills, strengths and core competencies (Latham, 2016).

Conclusion

From the above study, it can be concluded that organization behaviour is an important concept of organizational behaviour is vital as it can support businesses such as Little Social in understanding the reason because of which people at the workplace are behaving in a certain way. Furthermore, the Belbin model consists of nine key roles which can be assigned to the team members to develop an effective team. According to Kurt Lewin’s model, autocratic, democratic and Laissze faire are the three different leadership styles which can be used by organizations to manage teams.

 

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