Organizational behavior refers to the study of actions, attitudes, performance of individuals and team with one another as well as with the organization. It includes the study of individual behavior within the organization and makes a connection between human behavior and the organization. This concept could be applied to improve their working performance both individually and as a team. The application of organizational behavior theories and philosophies, team development theories and motivational theories and model will be beneficial to maximize the output of the employees as individual and team. This assignment will cover the clear investigation and analysis of the organizational behavior of BP.
The culture, power, politics of BP have influences over the team and individual behavior and performance. Those components have both the positive and negative influences over the employees that can change their behavior and can improve team performance.
Impact of Culture
Business culture and cultural changes influence the individual behavior and team performance of the employees of BP
Handy’s model classifies the culture into four classes
In an organization following power culture, the power is held by only a few individuals and they are the only authorized to take decisions, enjoy extra privileges in the workplace. Those individuals take all the decisions on what to do and distribute the selected tasks among the employees
An organization with a role culture is based on some roles and responsibilities that are assigned by the position of the employees in the organizational structure and should be followed by the employee. Rules and responsibilities delegated to the employees based on qualifications and interest in order to get enhanced output from the employee. This is effective to increase the working performance and organizational behavior of the employees as individuals and as a team, as they have the right of deciding the tasks and operations they feel comfortable. But it is a slow process of decision making
Person: The organization that follows the person culture, individuals of the company feels more important, unique and superior to the company. Here, individuals provide extra priority to self benefits. This culture may helpful for self-development, but it is ineffective to improve team behavior and performance.
Task culture is an effective culture for any business culture like BP where the employees form a team to resolve problems or tasks with common goals, interests, and specializations
As a multinational company, BP has to operate its business internationally when they face cultural difference like different people, different culture, behavior, language, etc. It is very important to be aware of the cultural-difference, as the culture of a person affects how he behaves in the workplace and his working performance
Hofstede’s culture dimensions theory
This theory can apply by the organization to work with different people from a range of different culture and geographic background. The dimensions of the theory and their applications are described below-
· Power distance:
It shows that where inequality and power are tolerated. The high power distance indicates that the organizational culture accepts the power differences. But the low power distance includes a culture that encourages organizational structure where have proper distributed power, decentralized decision making, and participative management (CFI, 2018).
· Individualism vs. collectivism:
In individualism, the employees provide more important to their personal image, goals, and power. On the other hand, collectivism
shows more importance on the goals, behavior, and performance as a team.
· Uncertainty avoidance index:
This is the index that indicates the extent to where uncertainty is tolerated. BP uses this dimension to deal with uncertain and
· Masculinity vs. femininity:
This dimension is applicable to BP to control and handle discrimination and behavior at the workplace. Masculinity includes some
characteristics likes gender roles, assertive on material achievements, well building, etc. Feminity includes modest, fluid gender
roles, nurturing, etc
· Short term orientation versus Long term:
Here, Long term orientation keeps focussing on the long term success and plans for it. And the short-term orientation is conscious
about the near future that’s why it avoids future planning and keep conscious of the present.
· Indulgence vs. Restraint
This dimension can be applied to BP with the consideration of the extend tendency for the company to fulfill its expectations.
Influence of globalization and digital technology
Globalization and use of digital technology have some influences over the culture and environment of BP. Globalization changes the business operations and activities, provides new and innovative technologies, product ideas, more human resources. And digital technologies make the business process easier and fast, online marketing improve marketing operations and sales
Principles Network Theory and Systems theory
Network theory can be applied by any business organization to get the graphical representation of the symmetric or asymmetric relations between the employees and departments. That is essential to do effective teamwork and to improve team performance.
On the other hand, system theory is the interdisciplinary theory about the nature of a complex business system and a framework with what one can describe a group of objects to get particular solutions
Influence of politics
Organizational politics are some unofficial and informal efforts for increment power, to achieve business goals and objectives, to sell products and ideas. To work with a business organization it requires skills in handling conflicts and shifting power bases and organizational political awareness. The employee should understand organization politic to avoid the negative influences on the behavior and performance of the employees
Personal change means the change of personal thinking, behavior, and activities that also change the team behavior and performance. Decisional changes include the change of personal or team decisions, organizational decision. Structural changes show the changes of whole internal and external business structure and activities. Politics have influence over these kinds of changes that causes the change of personal behavior.
Influence of power
Power has impacts over both the team and individual behavior where people are being highly valued in the organization for their expertise and problem-solving skills. The power of the individual gives him the right to take any business decision, it ensures effective interrelationships between the employees and team members and power can be distributed layer by layer based on the business structure
· Legitimate Power:
This power is given to an individual according to his position and role in the organization. It has a positive impact on personal and team development.
· Reward Power:
Reward power is the ability to dole out incentives. It is highly motivating to the employees and effective to develop their behavior and performance.
· Coercive Power:
It is the ability to threatening and punish others for their poor performance, sometimes it could be effective but most of the cases it has negative influences.
· Expert Power:
With this power, one has the ability to influence others. BP should effectively handle this power to avoid any conflicts and to improve the working ability of the employees.
Extrinsic motivation refers to the behavior that is driven by external rewards likes money, image, power, grades. This is effective to motivate the employees to complete all tasks to achieve the business goals.
Intrinsic motivation includes the behaviors of the employees which are related by internal rewarding. The behavior comes from an individual out of interest and will to complete the activity in hand. It helps to develop personal skills and performance to complete any tasks
Maslow’s hierarchy of need
Here the demands and needs are ranged from lower to upper level where the higher needs should be fulfilled in the emergence and lower needs are also be fulfilled. Here, a higher level of needs will get the priority after completing the lower level
Herzberg’s motivator-hygiene theory
The theory can be applied in BP to identify the factors that satisfy or dissatisfy the working environment of the employees. Here, satisfiers are motivated by the motivators and dissatisfies may occur through the hygiene factors such as the relationship with boss, supervision, policy, working conditions, salary, etc. The motivating factors are responsibility, recognition, achievement, growth, etc that are effective to provide clear motivation to the employees.
Alderfer’s ERG theory
The theory identifies all the needs and requirements of motivation where more than one need may operate at the same time. The theory also deals with frustration and regression and motivates and directs the employees toward the goals.
Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
Motivation is the behavior with what we make the choices that may maximize pleasure. According to this theory, people can act together with different goals as a result of motivation. Here, individual motivation depends on valence, instrumentality, and expectancy
Adam’s Equity theory
The theory indicates that employee should be motivated by the fair treatment that will in return motivate them to act fairly with other employees at the workplace. Maintenance of the equity is based on the ratio of input that is contributed by the employees to the outcomes. That ensures that employees are rewarded equally.
Types of organizational teams
Functional team: This team controls the functional activities of the organization and effectively plans for future functionalities.
Problem-solving team: Problem-solving teams identify the problems that the company is facing and provide effective solutions.
Project team: Project team includes some members with the same goals and targets to complete a business project.
Impact of technology on organizational teams
Using new and innovative technologies have some effective influence on organizational teams such as developed communication systems, the use of improved technologies, etc. The company can make a virtual team through online communications or websites. Developing an appropriate network would be effective for this team communications and activities
Group vs. team
Group means the collection of some members who will work together to complete a predefined task where all the members are independent and the group has only one leader. On the other hand, Team is a group of individuals who have a collective identity and have joined together to achieve a common goal. The team members are not independent and the team has more than one leaders.
The techniques and theories of making an effective team
Tuckman’s Team Development Model
The model of team development is essential to form an effective team that is opposed to an ineffective team. This model thoroughly observes the groups behaviors in different situations and provide different phases of groups to form a team.
This model has four stages-
In this stage, team members are assembled together to complete predefined tasks where they behave independently, has a lack of bonding. They develop proper plans, gather required data and information, and develop interrelationships
Here, the team addresses the tasks and ideas to complete. If they are unable to properly handle those tasks they will face different problems, the different conflict will occur, frustration will take places. Proper guidelines are needed to solve the problems.
At this stage, the team starts to resolve the problems, develop a good relationship to avoid conflicts and follows their leader.
The team is more conscious about their duties and responsibilities and they continuously perform their tasks and activities.
Belbin determined nine team roles to manage and develop a balanced team that are categorized into three groups as follows-
These roles are focused to improve the team performance and meeting the deadlines. Those roles are-
Provide essential drives to ensure the continuous movement of the team. The members are dynamic and extrovert
They implement all the tasks and provide self-discipline to the team.
They keep the focus on every single detail and ensure the right movement of the team.
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