The operations management can be defined as the business practice which helps in the creation of the highest possible efficiency and effectiveness of operations in the business environment. (Reid, and Sanders, 2015) The leaders and managers play an effective role in the operations management. The organization whose management and operations have been analysed is TESCO. The TESCO is a British multinational corporation engages in the business of selling grocery and retail merchandising. The operations of the company are in around more than 12 countries around the globe and is being operated with more than 4, 50,000 employees in more than 6800 stores.
The report aims at understanding the concepts of management and leadership within an organisation. The report is divided into two parts where first part covers various approaches to understand management concepts wherein the definition and comparison of different roles and characteristics of leader and manger is explained, the analysis and difference between role of a leaders and functions of manger using range of theories has been presented. (Mahadevan, B., 2015) An examination of examples of how role of a leader and function of manager apply in various situational contexts along with the strengths and weakness of different approached in the given situation of the work environment has been explained. The second part of the assignment is based on understanding the concepts of operations wherein evaluation in relation to how managers and leaders can improve operational management efficiency has been done, explanation of key approaches to operations management and role of leaders and mangers has been made, the importance and value of operations management in the achievement of business objectives has been done, assessment of factors in the context of CSR in the business environment along with their impact has been explained.
The management can be defined as the art of doing things or getting it done through people within an organization. The leadership on the other hand can be defined as the managements’ ability in an organisation that can help in the achievement of different tasks, taking instantaneous actions and inspire people for the accomplishment of tasks efficiently and effectively. (Lee, Choi, Youn, and Chun, 2017) Hence, leadership is in relation with the action that helps the people to achieve goals in the organization.
The role of management includes the involvement of employees, leading the sub ordinates, monitoring organisational performance and that of employees as well and the handling of conflicts in the organisation. On the other hand, the role of leadership involves helping management in formulation of effective policies and plans, communication the rational to people external to the organization, extending support to employees so that they can perform effectively. It is evident for the leaders to act as a friend and guide to their employees, who can help in the resolution of the problems of the organization.
Role of Leader
Role of Manager
The objective of the leaders lies with the guiding the people or employees of the organisation
The objective of the manager lies with the setting of roles of the people in the organization in relation to the achievement of the organizational goal.
The emphasis of the leader is on the employees of the organizations.
The emphasis of the manager is on the things and activity.
The responsibility of the leader lies in motivating employees to do the work that can help in the achievement of goals and objectives of the organisation.
The responsibility is in relation to the work allocation is with the manager.
The various roles and functions played by the leader and manager at TESCO involves:
the function of planning involves a forecast about the future in terms of mission and resources that re to be used. In Tesco, the planning is done by the managers and leaders in order to maximise the sale volume of the organisation by attracting a huge number of customers. The major responsibility of the manager and leader lies here is in the effective and efficient decision making for the organization.
the organising function involves the synchronization of the human activity in the organisation in such a way that the results that are required to be achieved by the organisation are achieved efficiently and effectively. TESCO considers the synchronisation of activities among various departments and offers varied number of products to the customers and tries to maintain the coordination.
the function of leading majorly involves motivating employees which can help in the maximisation of the profit by maximising the productivity of the organisation. In TESCO, superiors spare considerable time with the subordinates and provide them with valuable guidance that helps them in motivating.
the controlling function involves reviewing and monitoring of the performance of the employees to assess whether the performance will lead to the achievement of organisational goal or requires some correction and the necessary actions are taken accordingly. In TESCO the performance standards are set and budgets are prepared which are used as a controlling technique in the organisation.
Transformational leadership: as per this theory it is based on the fact which causes changes in the behaviour of the individual and the society and creates a valuable and positive change that exerts the followers to follow the leader and reach towards the set goals of the organisation. (Dugan, 2017) The leaders of TESCO follow the transformational leadership to create a valuable and positive change in the organization.
Trait theory leadership: it is based on the traits that are requires to possess by the leaders, although the theory fails to depict the common qualities of all the leaders. This theory is most effective in the big organisations where employees are regarded to strictly follow the provided by the leaders.
Contingency theory of leadership: as the name suggest, the theory is contingent and changes according to the situation that is persistent at that particular time. The approach is applied as per the situation which is faced by the organization at that particular time in order to increase productivity. The theory is practiced in the TESCO environment, as it deals with varied number of products at various levels where situation is contingent and which makes theory of leadership most effective.
Classic management theory: the classic management theory is based on the fact that workers of the organisations only have the physical and economic needs and do not take into account any social needs such as job satisfaction. The focus is on the centralized leadership, profit maximisation and decision making.
Chaos theory: The chaos theory of management states there may be a chaos or disturbance in the organisation due to the economic slowdown and change in the needs of the public. The theory is best applicable to the organization where management keeps their employees ready to face any for of situation without getting demotivated.
MBO: The Management by objective is a model which aims at performance improvement by clearly defining the goals of the organisation that have been agreed by the management and employees of the organisation
The various situations that are faced by the organisation has been grouped into three categories:
the stable situation depicts that the organisation is not prone to any change that may hamper the organization purpose in the maintenance of stability of the results. For instance, no change arises in the market in terms of inflation and change in demand of the products.
in this situation the change that occurs take place at slow pace and the factors that are impacted also changes moderately as per the organizational purpose. For instance, if the inflation rises, the changing situation is moderate which has emphasis on the results.
In this situation the organisation is exposed to the fast-changing conditions due to the impact of the market environment. For instance, the rapid changes in the stock market that are prone to the fluctuations according to the indices and theory impact a lot of investors.
Also, various external and internal organisational changes arise in the organisation. The external changes in the organisation includes factors such as government regulations, taxation policy, competitors and changing economic conditions. The internal factors include the change in the management, change in the financial position of the business and various changes in the strategies.
The role of the leader and manger in varied situation are as follows:
The role and function of manager includes:
· Planning: in the organisational analysis in consideration of changing situation, planning techniques such as budget allocation, availability of workforce is used for effective decision making.
· Organizing: the manager focuses on the coordination of activities among various departments in order to maintain stable results in changing conditions
· Leading: In TESCO, managers spare considerable time with the subordinates that helps them in motivating and achieving results in the changing situation.
· Controlling: In TESCO the performance standards are set by managers and policies are prepared which are used as a controlling technique in the organisation that helps in the monitoring and effective utilisation of resources.
· Directive style: in this style leaders provides direction to the employees or the workforce of the organisation who are otherwise not equipped with the specialised skills to accomplish the set tasks. The leaders directly give instructions which are required to be followed by leaders.
· Supportive style: This style involves the leadership traits that is focused on reducing the stress among the employees and increasing their productivity at the work place. The emphasis on the growth of the organisation and to achieve the desired results of the organisation.
· Participative style: this style of leadership involves the participation at all the level for the maximisation of strength of the organisation that can help in achieving the desired objectives.
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