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Agile method stands as an essential approach in the development of software under which solutions and requirements evolve through collaborative efforts of cross-functional teams and customers. In the current research, the focus is made on usage of agile methods in software engineering. The study emphasizes background of research as well as significance for future researchers. Furthermore, the research sheds light on different tools and techniques that will be used by researcher for completing the study.

Research background

Agile method is considered as the flexible method that allows changes in the requirement of software development, even if the engineers have completed making the initial planning. Based on the viewpoint of Bass (2016), agile method enables the team as well as the client to know properly about the progress of software development, which reduces risk in development process. In the modern era of globalisation, traditional process of software development cannot stand as efficient for managing the rapid requirement of change while developing any software. Alqudah and Razali (2017) noted that traditional software development method is rigid to change as well as lacks productivity. Traditional method (Waterfall model) is still used by a large number of Australian organisations, such as Simform, Diceus, which is declining organisational productivity level. The decline in the productivity of software engineering companies in Australia is thereby declining organisational profitability.


Figure 1: Decline in salaries provided by tech companies due to improper productivity

he decline in the profitability level of software engineering companies is declining the tech career in the Australian marketplace. As per the record of 2015, it is noted that 7.5% fall in the salaries of Australian tech companies due to improper productivity level (Esthergergis, 2015). The current issue is the decline in salaries as well as difficulty in developing software, which is creating a headache for engineers to find proper jobs in Australia. It is noted that waterfall method (traditional) has no proper feedback path, which means that there is no error correction phase. Any mistakes done by developers during any developmental phase can affect the productivity level of developers. Lack of interaction, overlapping, flexibility makes engineers to meet the ever-changing requirements of the customers, which degrades the profitability of company, thereby affection their salaries.

Agile method includes customer involvement, while traditional method fails to involve customers in every phase of development. Abrahamsson et al. (2017) noted that agile method is considered as the process of client-focused, which makes clients continuously involved in every stage of software development. It is important to note that if software developing companies focus more on agile method, as compared to the waterfall method, then the company can significantly improve its profitability level in future. The reason is that agile method would make engineers make changes in any phase of development based on customer's requirement. Hence, the present research topic is interesting as well as highly important for future researchers as it can help in unpacking the importance of agile methods in software engineering. 


Aim of the research

The research will aim to critically evaluate the usage of agile methods in software engineering.

Research Questions

Q.1. What is the concept of software engineering and agile method?

Q.2. What are the challenges faced by engineers while using agile method?

Q.3. What is the impact of agile methods in software engineering?

Q.4. What are the ways for eradicating issues of agile method for improving software engineering?

Terminology or keywords


Agile method

Waterfall method

Software engineering





Customer’s requirement


Table 1: Keywords or terminology


Concept of Agile method

Agile method is referred to as the group of methods of software development, which are based on incremental and iterative development. In the perspective of Bass (2016), agile methods are iterative, adaptive planning, promoting communication, flexible and rapid change responses. The current method is generally used for achieving higher-quality software in a shorter time period. It minimises overall risks as well as allows the project to adapt to change easily. The highest priority of agile method is to satisfy the customers through continuous and early delivery of valuable software. On the contrary, Annosi et al. (2016) argued that agile method fails to pay proper attention to design and architectural issues. Agile method is simply bound towards producing small design-decisions. Moreover, it is also noted that agile method includes high testing, which consumes huge time. The emphasis of agile method is on software development, rather than focusing on user and design. 

Control theory on agile methodology


Figure 2: Control theory on agile methodology

The control theory is focused on making software developers understand the conditions under which the agile usage becomes more effective. Wiener et al. (2016) commented that the control theory is beneficial for providing the entire team with autonomy for determining methods to achieve the objective of the project. It helps in developing the quality of software by meeting component complexity, dynamic complexity, coordinative complexity and bug severity. Moreover, Autralian organisations, such as Simform can use the current theory for dealing with dynamic complexity of software development. As argued by Tripp et al. (2018), collaboration and leadership are required for software development, instead of control and command system, as highlighted by control theory. Continuous improvement in the design of software, testing on rapid change and feedback are useful for developing high-quality software.

Complexity theory for software development





Figure 3: Complexity theory for software development

The complexity theory is aimed towards resolving complexity that arises at the time of developing software. Based on the viewpoint of Nguyen-Duc (2017), the complexity theory emphasises system theory is focused on forming a unity of science, which is interdisciplinary. The organisations can use the current theory for developing greater insight into the systems in general. In addition to this, it is also useful for developing cybernetics, which can aid company to focus towards its goals by making use of feedback mechanisms. On the contrary, Mitleton-Kelly et al. (2018) argued that complexity theory also includes dynamical system as it helps in dealing with concepts (hard-to-measure) through cybernetics and system theory. The complexity theory includes game theory that helps the software developers to develop games, besides improving team’s behaviour. Furthermore, the current theory also includes evolutionary theory as its component that can be used by organisations for understanding survival, growth as well as system adaption. Chaos theory is also emphasised for planning and controlling the requirements that are needed during each phase of software development.

Key Concepts:


Complex frameworks is mostly worried about the practices and properties of frameworks. A framework, comprehensively characterized, is a lot of elements that, through their cooperations, connections, or conditions, structure a bound together entirety (Tsui, 2016). It is constantly characterized as far as its limit, which decides the substances that are or are not part of the framework. Elements lying outside the framework at that point become some portion of the framework's condition.

As a field of study, complex frameworks is a subset of frameworks hypothesis. General frameworks hypothesis centers correspondingly around the aggregate practices of cooperating substances, yet it ponders an a lot more extensive class of frameworks, including non-complex frameworks where conventional reductionist methodologies may stay feasible (Sojeva, 2016). Without a doubt, frameworks hypothesis looks to investigate and depict all classes of frameworks, and the creation of classifications that are helpful to scientists crosswise over generally fluctuating fields is one of frameworks hypothesis' principle destinations.

As it identifies with complex frameworks, frameworks hypothesis contributes an accentuation in transit connections and conditions between a framework's parts can decide framework wide properties. It additionally contributes the interdisciplinary viewpoint of the investigation of complex frameworks: the thought that mutual properties connect frameworks crosswise over orders, legitimizing the quest for demonstrating approaches pertinent to complex frameworks any place they show up (Zarudniev, 2018). Explicit ideas essential to complex frameworks, for example, development, input circles, and adjustment, likewise begin in frameworks hypothesis.


Frameworks show intricacy implies that their practices can't be effectively suggested from the very properties that make them hard to demonstrate, and the mind boggling practices are administered totally, or for the most part, by the practices those properties produce. Any displaying methodology that disregards such challenges or portrays them as clamor, at that point, will fundamentally create models that are neither exact nor helpful (Turner, 2017). Up 'till now no completely broad hypothesis of complex frameworks has risen for tending to these issues, so analysts must comprehend them in area explicit settings. Scientists in complex frameworks address these issues by survey the main errand of displaying to catch, as opposed to decreasing, the intricacy of their particular frameworks of intrigue.


The cooperating segments of an intricate framework structure a system, which is an accumulation of discrete items and connections between them, normally portrayed as a chart of vertices associated by edges (Daniel, 2018). Systems can portray the connections between people inside an association, between rationale entryways in a circuit, between qualities in quality administrative systems, or between some other arrangement of related elements.

Systems regularly portray the wellsprings of multifaceted nature in complex frameworks. Contemplating complex frameworks as systems along these lines empowers the large help utilizations of chart hypothesis and system science. Few perplexing frameworks, there are likewise mind boggling techniques, which have characteristics, for eg., stage advances and power-law degree appropriations that promptly loan themselves to developing or noisy conduct (Newman, 2015). The way that the quantity of edges in a total chart develops quadratically in the quantity of vertices reveals extra insight into the wellspring of intricacy in enormous systems: as a system develops, the quantity of connections between substances rapidly overshadows the quantity of elements in the system.


Complex versatile frameworks are uncommon instances of complex frameworks that are versatile in that they have the ability to change and gain as a matter of fact (Matharu, 2015). Instances of complex versatile frameworks incorporate the securities exchange, social creepy crawly and subterranean insect settlements, the biosphere and the environment, the cerebrum and the resistant framework, the phone and the creating developing life, the urban areas, producing organizations and any human social gathering based undertaking in a social and social framework, for example, ideological groups or networks.

Concept of software engineering

Software engineering is considered as the application of engineering for developing software in the systematic method. As opined by Braude and Bernstein (2016), software engineering is the systematic application of technological and scientific knowledge that includes experience and methods of designing software. It is referred to as the branch of subject (computer science), which deals with implementation, designing as well as maintaining complexity of computer programs. Software engineering also stands as the process of properly analysing the designing, testing and constructing end-user applications for satisfying the needs of customers. The career in software engineering is highly demanding, and it provides high salaries to the developers. As argued by Fitzgerald and Stol (2017), the careers in software engineering field are declining due to decline in the profitability of the mentioned field. It is also a stressful job as most of the works are done using codes. Proper skills, such as using technologies and knowledge about programming languages, are required for excelling in the field of software engineering.

Iterative model of software engineering


Figure 4: Iterative model of software engineering

The model of iterative is aimed towards the life cycle of software development, which focuses on simplified initial implementation that gains high complexity and broader feature until the completion of the final system. As mentioned by Hoda and Noble (2017), iterative model covers different phases, such as planning, design & analysis, implementation, testing and evaluation. The organisations can use the current model during the earlier stage of software development. It can also enable software engineering organisations to find design or functional flaws at an early stage. Iterative model allows organisations to adapt to ever-changing requirements of clients and software project easily. As argued by Stol and Fitzgerald (2015), the implementation of iterative model requires more resources and is not suitable for the smaller projects. The progress of the project is extremely dependent on the phase of risk analysis. Moreover, it is also noted that iterative model is not suitable for any changing requirements and even requires huge management attention. 

The Process Planning & Requirements:

The first and foremost step with the most developing projects is go through planning in order to properly plan with the map related to specificied documents. Also, it will be helping in knowing the establishment of hardware and software requirements and be prepared for all the upcoming stages of the cycle (Cullina, 2016).

Analyze & Design:

One of the first step of the process i.e planning is been completed now second step of analysis should be taken out. Analyze step should be performed related to requirement of business on the basis on some assumptions and logics, database techniques and all the other things which are required in this step of project (Savage, 2015). The design step starts here i.e. introducing various other necessities such as lannguages, data layers, services etc. These all are required at other stages of the project.


After the completion of stage i.e. planning and analysis, next stage of project is implementation of all whole planning that has been planned at early stage of project (JL, and et.al., 2017). Actual implementation of all planninbgs and coding process are also started. All type of plannings, specifications and design documents up to this points are been coded and then implementated into the initial process of this project.


Now when the iteration project has been first coded and then implemented in this project, now another step is to test the whole process in order to identify all the potential bugs present in the project and also issues that have been cropped up (Bilgaiyan, 2016).


Now when all the above actionable steps have been completed, now the time hasd came for thorogh evaluation of process in order to complete development up to this stage (Hiisilä, 2016). This also help the whole team members, clients and other outside parties to evaluate project at this stage and identify what are, when should changes occur in the project.   

From the above process of iterativemodel of software engineering, management should take an exceptional tool that can help company in keeping pace with other market leaders. It provides company real- time based monitoring system and automatic exception reporting for all the completed projects (Sojeva, 2016). It help management in integrating with the all the languages prevailing in market. It also help in detecting all the errors and find the solution for all the errors.

Research objectives

  • To highlight the concept of agile method and software engineering
  • To analyse the challenges faced by engineers using an agile method
  • To evaluate the impact of agile methods in software engineering
  • To recommend ways for improving software engineering by eradicating challenges of agile method

Challenges faced while using agile method

  • Less Predictability

The predictable level is less, which makes software developers face difficulty in quantifying the extent of the required efforts. Fortmann (2018) commented that engineers face the problem in properly predicting the efforts. It drives frustration, poor decisions and poor practices, which can thereby lead to poor results in software development. On the contrary, Gregory et al. (2016) argued that the most common challenges that are faced while making use of agile method are high commitment and high time. The developers, testers and customers need to interact with one another for successfully developing the software properly.

  • More commitment and time

Agile method requires numerous conversations (face-to-face) and closes cooperation within the team. Nuottila et al. (2016) opined that the users are required to prompt testing as well as signing off each phase, which provides developers to mark the stage completed, prior to moving to the next phase. It helps in highlighting that the product properly meets the expectation of users. Contrarily, Fortmann (2018) argued that documentation in agile method is comparatively less detailed as compared to the waterfall method. It is noted that software requirements are clarified in case of the agile method at the time of development, which makes it less detailed.

  • Documentation is less-detailed

The clarification of software development at the development time makes the documentation of agile method less detailed. As mentioned by Gregory et al. (2016), documentation is found to be less-detailed, which makes the new team face difficulty in developing software. For example, it can make Diceus face difficulties and misunderstanding among team, which can thereby lead to making software falls off-track. 

·       Unskilled product owners for businesses

Business Requirements Document (BRD) is been utilized for a considerable length of time. Indeed, it has its inadequacies, yet it's natural. The greater part of the individuals engaged with necessities – principally business co- workers and Business Experts– are new to Agile. These experts and co- workers don’t perceive client stories and delay to surrender the BRD for something other than what's expected on the grounds that they see it as an agreement among them and IT (Bjørn, 2019). In what capacity will they have the option to control the bearing of improvement without that agreement?

Also, most Agile programming advancement groups utilize an ALM instrument, which is the place client stories need to wind up for disintegration into improvement errands. Most business partners and BAs, then again, still use Microsoft Word and Excel to creator prerequisites (Rasnacis, 2017). This instrument bungle smothers the cross-departmental cooperation groups need to understand the full advantages of Agile.

Impact of agile methods in software engineering

  • High-quality software

Agile method is useful for achieving higher quality in software development in the shorter time-period. As stated by Abrahamsson et al. (2017), agile method is client-focused, which makes software engineers easily meet the requirements of its customers. In every stage of agile method, engineers involve clients, so motivated their needs and requirements can be analysed and fulfilled. For example, agile teams of Algoworks are found to be extremely self-organised, which helps in providing better results. On the contrary, Rejab et al. (2018) argued that the waterfall method stands efficient for developing software as each phase within it has specific deliverables as well as review process. The waterfall method is the best selection for software companies as it is helpful for managing dependencies. 

  • Customer collaboration and flexibility

The method of agile in software development is considered useful as it provides users with the flexibility to make changes in any stage of development. According to Karagiannis (2015), face-to-face conversation is done using agile method, which makes the company develop cooperation between developers and business people. In the mentioned method, continuous attention to good design and technical excellence is made, which makes the software user adapt to the changing circumstances. Testers, developers and customers can easily contact one another for the progress of software development. On the contrary, Alqudah and Razali (2017) argued that in agile method, necessary documentation and designing are nor provided properly. It is noted that the development of software can easily get out of track, when representation of customer is not clear enough.

·       Transparency

Another advantage of Agile programming improvement is that it gives an extraordinary chances to clients and customers which is are all needed through whole task. This can incorporate managing different highlights, cycle managing and audit classes, or regular managing manufacturing businesses which contains new highlights of business (Leow, and et.al., 2017). In such cass, agile leaders additional works perceive customers or clients to check improvement in work in return.

·       Stakeholders’ Engagement

An Agile procedure provides various other chances to co- workers and team engagement – previously, during, and after each and every Sprint. By including the various kinds of partners in each progression of undertaking, there is a high level of joint effort among different groups. This gives more chances to group to genuinely comprehend organization’s vision, convey working programming early, and often builds partners' trust (Serrador, 2015). Partners are compiled to be more seriously occupied with a venture since trust has been built up in team's limitation to convey topest working programmes.


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