• Motivation Theories
– Content and Process
– Motivation & Organisations
– Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation
1. My pay is high for the job I do
2. My pay is fair compared to that of my colleagues
3. I have generous benefits (holidays, pension etc)
4. I am well trained for my current job
5. I receive development for my future career
6. My place of work (location, office) is very pleasant
7. I have security of employment
8. I have flexible working policies e.g. hours of work
9. I am not overworked (long hours etc.)
10. I like the people I work with (the social environment)
Explain motivation by our behaviour & interaction with the environment.
1. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory (1964)
2. Latham & Lock’s Goal Theory (1991
• Each individual has needs, or feelings of deficiency that drive their behavior
• Once a need is satisfied, then it is no longer motivating
• Needs are in a hierarchy that an individual moves up as they satisfy levels of needs
An employee’s belief about their own capabilities, perception of whether they will actually get what they desire from managers, and the depth of their wants and values will all interact psychologically to create a motivational force such that the employee acts in ways that bring pleasure and avoid pain.
Definition: motivation coming from within an individual.
Examples: anything that is done for the love of the act itself.
Uses: develops deepest level of thinking and learning, self-directed learning.
Limitations: difficult to teach the concept without a conscious plan, rewards are not immediate, requires solid skill base and the creation of meaningful lessons
• Extrinsic motivation.
• External rewards and punishments.
• Praise increase likelihood I’ll participate.
• Criticism decrease the likelihood.
• Principles of operant conditioning at work.
• Adams, J. S. (1963). Towards an understanding of inequity. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67(5), 422–436.
• Herzberg, F.  (2003). How do you motivate your employees? Harvard Business Review, January, 87–96.
• Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). Work motivation and satisfaction: Light at the end of the tunnel. Psychological Science, 1(4), 240–246.
• Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370–396.
• Netessine, S., & Yakubovich, V. (2012). The Darwinian workplace. Harvard Business Review, 90(5), 25–28.
• Nohria, N., Groysberg, B., & Lee, L.-E. (2008). Employee Motivation. Harvard Business Review, 86(7/8), 78 84
• Norton, M. I., & Dunn, E. W. (2008). Help employees give away some of that bonus. Harvard Business Review, 86(7/8), 27–27
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