Mental Health For Communities
The mental health of an individual depends on the type of population and its external environment. An individual's attitude, supportive system, environment, culture and adaptive ability regulate the mental health or ability. Mental issues may arise depending on the age group or mindset of a group of people. The main focus of this essay is to identify the different influential aspects of a specific community, which is associated with mental health. For analysing the various aspects related to mental health, old people aged 85+ years is selected as a community. The mental health issues of the specific age group are the main concern of this essay.
Metal health of the population over 85+
The population of 85 and above is hugely influenced by mental disorders. The mental illnesses, which are identified in this population, are clinical depression, dementia, anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, attention deficit, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, etc (Copeland et al. 2017). Moreover, most of the population of this age group suffers from one or two of these mental illnesses. The adaptive capability of this old age population is totally absent due to these mental illnesses.
clinical depression is known as a serious mental disease which refers to resistant depression and temporary sad episode of an individual. This mental disease can be mild from serious depending on the patient's condition. Due to emotional loss and medical condition individual can become clinically depressed (Sunderland, Anderson, Sachdev, Titov & Andrews, 2015). Emptiness, hopelessness, sadness, frustration, irritation are the different symptoms of this disease. The old age population of Australia rate of clinical depression and most of the time it comes from the loss of some loved ones or negligence. Due to Physical health condition, clinical depression is also diagnosed within the old age people of Australia. According to data, around 10 to 15% of the old age population in this country experience depression. But what those living in residential aged-care have a higher rate which is around 35% (Sala et al. 2018).
Dementia is known as the declination of mental ability which causes memory loss. One of the common types of dementia identified in the Australian old age people is Alzheimer. The statistics of Australia has highlighted that due to dementia around 15 billion dollars is spent by the government to reduce its impact. According to data, dementia is identified as the greatest cause of disability in this country for the old age people. The statistics also highlighted that more than 50% of old age people living in the residential aged care facilities of Australia is diagnosed with dementia (Chihuri et al. 2016).
Anxiety disorder- This is mainly known as a psychiatric disorder, which is observed in mental patients from extreme worry or fear. In the process of analysing the data for the older people live in Australia, it has been identifying that 10% of this population experience anxiety. In this old age, the declining Physical health condition increases the possibility of anxiety disorder (Liu, Stroulia, Nikolaidis, Miguel-Cruz & Rincon, 2016).
It is considered as a brain disorder which creates changes in an individual's ability, mood or energy. For instance, there is a variety of bipolar disorder including cyclothymic disorder, bipolar 1 and bipolar 2 disorder (Knight & Hester, 2016). The government data of bipolar disorder have identified that the percentage of bipolar disorder is lesser than the other mental health issues. Around 2% of the old age people are affected by this mental illness.
Attention deficit is a dysfunction of neurological components in our brain which cause a behavioural problem. Social interaction, completing the task is the general symptom of attention deficit disorder. In the Australian population, the attention deficit old age population is also identified but the percentage is lower as well (King, Cappeliez, Canham & O'Rourke, 2017).
This is known as when mental disorder which is chronic in nature and affects the thinking ability of an individual and how he feels or behave. There are 10 to 15% of the old age populations who are living with this mental disorder in Australia.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder- this mental disorder is very common and long-lasting. In this disease the individual becomes uncontrollable. Behaviours or thoughts occur repeatedly. For the old age people, they are a limited evaluation process to fight with this disease. 2% of Australians are affected by this disease and it also has a high rate in the old age population (Hiel et al. 2015).
Influence of attitude
The Australian government has highlighted that the contribution of older Australians is numerous. That is the main reason why voluntary work has organised by the government and other agencies both around 39 billion dollars a year (Hiel et al. 2015). There are several negative attitudes generating in the Society of Australia related to social exclusion and unfair treatment. For overcoming the situation the government has included the age discrimination act which has legalised fair treatment for the age population. From the year 2004, this act is able to handle the age discrimination issues and changing the negative stereotypes related to these people. Analysing the statistics related to the Australian population, the number of support workers of this country for old age people are decreasing in number and this decreasing number will increase in future. There are different aboriginal groups in this country who have separate attitudes regarding their old age population (King, Cappeliez, Canham & O'Rourke, 2017).
The mental health issues of old age people over 85 years are relatively significant area rather than other age groups. The mental condition of old aged people is not only related to mental health but influence physical health. The negative stereotypes related to this population affect dear mental conditions. In this time of age, this population became dependent both physically and mentally (Fredriksen-Goldsen, Shiu, Bryan, Goldsen & Kim, 2016). Physical dependence can be overcome with supportive Healthcare. But mental health needs a proper connection and a healthy relationship with family members and friends. But the attitude of the current young population of Australia is more work-oriented then family and relationships. In this last stage of life, this old aged population wants to share their time with their family and the increasing avoidance of family members leading these old people towards mental disruption. Due to decreasing Physical health, mental health concerns are already part of their daily life. The avoidance and this attachment with family member directly affect on their mental health (Knight & Hester, 2016). That is a major reason why supporting groups are increasing in number. The infrastructure is also developing both Government and non-government sectors related to the Healthcare programs of old aged people.
However, the population over 85 years is small in number but the majority of them live independently at their home. Improvements are already started for minimising the various mental health issues of this age group. As a result, among 1 people of the four people aged 85 years is currently living under care accommodation (Copeland et al. 2017). Retirement has already started for the voluntary group from the ‘baby boomer’ generation. Therefore the number of old age people over 85 years will increase comparatively from the previous generation. The national economy will be benefited due to this fact around 5% due to the increasing paid employment of Australians. This amount of money can be used for enhancing positive development for the old aged population.
Influence of environment
The ageing population of Australia has an increasing rate of mental health problems. Due to various health problem strike chronic pain reduced mobility old age people need long term care facility. This age group has already experienced several events like a drop in socioeconomic status, bereavement with the process of retirement. Loneliness, isolation and psychological distress became a regular part of their feeling from these stressors (Chihuri et al. 2016). Therefore their mental health and Physical health always work vice versa. Due to negligence and depression, their Physical health can decrease, which can create heart disease. For fighting in this scenario, and developing a better infrastructure for their Health Care some minimum environmental changes are required. Old age itself is considered as a disease where the abilities of the individual decreases. Therefore developing environment, which can provide them with support in enhancing the physical and mental health is required. That is the major reason why Australia and its primary Health Care sector have to spend billions of dollars to develop old age villages. These villages not only provide them with proper Healthcare for their mental health but equally contribute to creating the best quality of the environment for them (Sunderland, Anderson, Sachdev, Titov & Andrews, 2015).
The few needed requirement of a mentally ill old aged people for generating the best quality of environment are:
A full-time attendant is required for any type of physical and mental health problem
The neighbours have to be cooperative
Loud music or any lousy environment need to be prohibited
Nearby garden or park is needed for them
Hospital or medical care should be near
Friends and family are needed to visit repeatedly for their mental stability (Sala et al. 2018)
Mental check up on a regular basis is highly required
Depending on the type of mental Health issue, both medication and psychological treatment is required
Using all of these above techniques can create a better environment for the mentally ill old age people. Any type of disruption of this environment can impact their mental condition, which cannot be recovered due to their age factor. Finally, due to the effect of this environment, the mental diseases will increase in nature and they can easily become hospitalize. The excessive level of environmental degradation can also cause death.
Influence of culture
Australia is known as linguistic and cultural diversity. There is an increasing number of old age people who are known as longest settled immigrants and old age population with mental disorders. Due to migration from India, New Zealand and China a mix culture has developed, where English is the official language. A challenging mental health system has developed in this country due to this culture. For the mental health of refugees and immigrants of the older population is a variable factor (Liu, Stroulia, Nikolaidis, Miguel-Cruz & Rincon, 2016). Their multicultural society has identified that the mental health care system for nationals and migrants are different.
Australian culture is mainly based on western culture and very liberal which is to some extent adopted from Britain. Also, it’s culture has a wide level of Australia’s unique geographical influence. Though Australia has no official religion, the majority of them have chosen Christianity as their religion (Fredriksen-Goldsen, Shiu, Bryan., Goldsen & Kim, 2016). Most of its population resides in the urban locality around the coastal area to avoid the harsh geographical area. These people always aim to own their personal home as Australia has the highest rate of home ownership in the world. Aussie couples often meet through social circles or workplace. Most of them live together before their marriage. Traditional family structure is not usually seen here as the parents here always encourage their children to be independent and individualism is mostly preferred. So nuclear families are mostly found here. As average household size is around 2.6 people (Rosenberg et al. 2015). Nearly about 13% of people in Australia is 85+. Also notably Aussie's life expectancies are one of the highest around the world as it increased significantly from the 20th century.
This cultural diversity has influenced the mental health of old age Australians. Their social structure has impacted their mental ability. Surveys have identified that there are an increasing number of Mental Health issues in the old age population who are immigrants and aboriginal. The social acceptance factor from their society or culture has become one of the reasons behind that declining mental Health Care process (Hiel et al. 2015).
Influence of supporting system
Mental disorder is counted as one of the major illness among the old age people who are aged more than 85. Therefore for supporting the ageing population, the government of Australia has announced a 10-year plan for them. Animation of this plan is to promoting independence and choice for the older Australians. The government already has some social security payments and benefits which are for the aged people (King, Cappeliez, Canham & O'Rourke, 2017). These people have their retirement pensions but this initiative includes some extra services supports and payments. The mentally disabled old age people are successfully using these schemes and payments because they are counted as part of this government scheme. They are provided with pensions, payments for disability, funding for residential facilities, medical benefits, public housing, etc. There are also home help, dementia support program, support programs, information services senior cards, which are accessible by the national government. The NSW Department of ageing, disability and home care is associated with this safety and security program of this age. There are also private old age residential villages available for the old people with special hospital facility.
All the support system together is working for the physical and mental health of the old age people. Due to the effect of the support system, the old age population of Australia is able to get better services. In fact, the future possibility of increasing mental health Care is also part of the 10-year plan (Knight & Hester, 2016). In this age, the mental issue became a major factor as part of Healthcare. Therefore all the support system developed by the public and private sector of Australia for the old age population include the mental support system as a part. Most of the mental illness are long term and need continuous medical attention. That is the major reason why the health issues of this population are improving rapidly and will develop far better in future (Liu, Stroulia, Nikolaidis, Miguel-Cruz & Rincon, 2016).
Influence of adaptive ability
In understanding the adaptive ability of the old age population, the common adaptive ability of different age group needs to be understood. With increasing age, the adaptive ability of population decrease. That is the major reason why mental illness of this age group is hugely influenced by the adaptive ability. After the age of 65, different mental symptoms became part of mental health disorders (Chihuri et al. 2016). As the rate of mental illness is increasing rapidly in this old aged population, the Healthcare infrastructure has to work harder for this population. The adaptive ability is counted as the minimum in this age group and therefore they did not able to take care of themselves. And when a mental illness like memory loss is identified as a medical issue then constant support is required. They were not able to memorize their proper medication and also new things cannot be adopted by them. The easily get irritated from new things and constantly forgetting important information. The mental illness directly affects their adaptive ability and minimise the chances of beginning their mental health (Sala et al. 2018). Due to the effect of mental illness like dementia their adoptive ability decreases in the lowest level and can cause brain stroke and other neurological diseases. In this old age, is there mental health cannot be restored by proper medication and psychological sessions, it can stop the function of their brain where the adaptive ability is rated as zero.
In light of the above discussion, it can be apprehended that mental issues are part of every age group and population. As per the old age people over 85 years, mental illnesses or issues more than others. Due to their absence of adaptive ability, recovering the mental health of this specific age group are not possible. The few techniques, which are the vital way used by supporting groups for reducing the mental issues, are highly influenced by the culture, environment, attitude, supporting system and adaptive ability. Finally, it is evident that for improving the mental concerns related to the old age population, the initiatives taken by the private sectors and government of Australia need to work harder to carry on the identified positive development.
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