a) Analyse the roles of cost and management in organisations through the analysis of accounti concepts and tools
b) Evaluate and apply financial and non-financial performance measures and tools used in assessing and rewarding individual and corporate performance
c) Describe how management control theory and concepts apply to organisational settings through the generation of accounting and organisational reports
A Marking Rubric is attached so you are aware of exactly how your submission will be marked.
Most of the second half of this subject focusses on how firms can measure performance and in turn, reward effort through bonus and incentive schemes, often using accounting concepts and tools (LO a) and LO b). It is important that firms have a clear understanding of what their overall corporate strategy is and set targets for performance in line with those goals and in line with the Mission and Vision Statement.
For many years public opinion supported the notion that many executives were grossly overpaid, particularly in cases where the returns to shareholders were mediocre. In some cases, negative returns were experienced while at the same time, the senior executives still claimed very large bonus payments. As society became more sensitive to such „largesse‟ by many Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) and their highest paid executives, regulations were enacted to insist on more transparency from company boards to show what objective methods were being used to calculate bonuses and demonstrate how these methods, and the remuneration made to these well-paid executives, were likely to bring strong „value‟ returns for shareholders.
Public companies in Australia are now obliged to reveal details of how their senior executive team‟s remuneration has been determined. Each public company‟s Board must form a „Remuneration Committee‟ (some companies may use different names for this committee) and generally the members consist of at least two non-executive members of the Company‟s Board plus the Chairperson. (Each student should check the composition of the committee relevant to their selected company and briefly report the details in their report in the company overview.)
The Committee‟s role is to determine and approve the methods and amounts of executive compensation including the base salary and benefits, the method of calculation and limits surrounding the Short-Term Incentives (STIs) paid and the method of calculation and limits for any Long-Term Incentives (LTIs) paid.
The details of the remuneration scheme are published in the Remuneration Report within the Annual Report for the company and then voted on by shareholders at the annual general meeting. If more than 25% of shareholders „vote down‟ (against) the remuneration plan, the Board must revise the plan and if this revised plan is still rejected by shareholders, the Board‟s position in considered „untenable‟ (unacceptable) to the shareholders and typically must resign their position.
Each member of the group is to research the annual report (and corporate website) for one major publicly listed Australian corporation. The companies will be allocated by your Tutor during the tutorial in Week 6 (following the Mid-Trimester Exam). Much of the information you require for management performance measures is likely to be found in the Remuneration Report within the selected Companies‟ Annual Report.
Your group is to research the DETAIL of the METHODS used to calculate both the STIs and the LTIs that are proposed to be paid to the executives and also the methods that WERE used to calculate the performance pay for the prior 3 periods (years). Note that often the schemes adopted will be in place for up to 5 years, so you may only have to research the one scheme to cover the existing period and the past periods.
You MUST then RESEARCH the academic literature available on each of these methods. For example, a company may use a „(Balanced) Scorecard’ of measures which include both financial and non-financial measures. (Such as Return on Investment – Financial measure, and Net Promoter Score – Non-financial measure.)
Please note: Only ONE method for the STI calculation and ONE method for the LTI needs be considered and must include at least one NON-FINANCIAL performance measure.
You are to determine whether the literature supports the use of these measures and how successful the researchers believe them to be. In addition, examine the results of the selected company over the past 2 years (2016 and 2017) and report on whether you believe these measures are a reasonable measure of performance of their executive team, taking into consideration the returns to shareholders. (i.e. is the remuneration increasing from the STI‟s and LTI‟s paid in proportion to increases in the share price and/or profitability of the Company?)
The following is a Report Format that should be adopted by each group. More details will be given in the Week 6 briefing.
please note: The research conducted by examining the Annual Reports of the companies MUST also be matched to research of academic articles assessing the effectiveness of Executive Remuneration schemes and methods!
Report format required:
The following format is a modification to the layout suggested in the Subject Outline.
you should follow this guide.
The REPORT component (Learning Outcome c)
Each group member is to research and write an individual summary report that includes the following:
1. Research the Academic Literature using EBSCOHOST and/or other Academic Search Engines and discover academic articles discussing methods of measuring Executive Performance. (Note in the USA, remuneration is referred to as Executive Compensation so you may wish to substitute this term in your searches.)
2. Research and discover the corporate goals of each of the companies reviewed.
(Review the Chairman and CEO‟s Statements in the Annual Report and the
Corporate Website for this information.)
3. Research and discover how the senior managers are having their performance assessed. The CEO and top 5-10 executives will usually be listed.
NOTE – DO NOT REVIEW THE REMUNERATION OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OTHER THAN THE EXECUTIVE MEMBERS SUCH AS THE CEO
4. Discover the performance of the company from a shareholder‟s perspective by reviewing growth (or decline) in the company‟s share price and dividends paid. (Use a copy of the share price chart for the past 3 years)
5. Research commentary on the company‟s performance (see newspaper and other reputable financial information sources – all MUST be referenced) and document (cut
6. Reflect and COMPARE the information given in the most recent year‟s annual reports to that given 3 years prior. You should focus on whether there is an increasing level of disclosure for your allocated company, or the same amount and/or a decline in transparency. Thoroughly report your findings and present your comparisons.
7. Your group should write up your findings AND conclude if your company is being truly transparent and if it is producing a „good‟ result for the shareholders. In essence, you are concluding whether you believe their management control systems are working
8. The GROUP should then write up a comparison (analyse, compare, AND contrast approaches) for each of the year‟s results.
9. Finally, draw conclusions on whether the company‟s performance measurement systems are producing results for the shareholders. (Note – there may be more than one conclusion, e.g. The company is producing higher share price growth, or perhaps higher brand awareness, or repairing past errors and rebuilding value or producing both better financial returns AND dividends etc.)
How to layout your report
To help you understand how to go about evaluating the Remuneration Report, I have posted an academic article by Clarkson, P., Lammerts Van Bueren, A. and Walker, J. (2006) Chief executive officer remuneration disclosure quality: corporate responses to an evolving disclosure environment Accounting and Finance, 46, pp. 771-796. Please note that you do NOT have to summarise this article (or even read all of it), however please see Table 5 on page 785 to and review the 10 items this study looked at to review the openness of the reporting of the company.
YOU MAY FIND IT VERY USEFUL TO MAKE A TABLE USING THESE 1O POINTS AS A STARTING POINT TO REVIEW YOUR COMPANY‟S REMUNERATION REPORT!
Headings and layout questions often arise and for this report, it is suggested the following headings would make the work more readable:
Executive summary – This is a ONE PAGE review of ALL the report. This should be a stand-alone document which could be read by the CEO (for example) to find out what the report was about AND what was found in conclusion.
Introduction – This is an introduction TO THE REPORT NOT an introduction to the specific company being studied. It introduces WHY the report exists, what it is examining (see the topic and tasks notes above for guidance) and how it is laid out. (Include a short summary of the aims and scope of the report in this section.)
Review of Topic and review of Literature
NOTE – THIS SECTION WILL REPRESENT UP TO 30% OF YOUR TOTAL MARK!!!
Present a summary of the literature researched on the topic of executive performance evaluation and remuneration in public companies. Creating this section allows your group to develop your knowledge on the topic to enable a better-informed consideration of the individual company‟s remuneration reports. Include a discussion on the effectiveness of control systems within companies focussing on management/executive performance and reward systems.
Company reviews – This includes the investigative report – one for each group member on their company – answering the questions about the remuneration report as required in the task requirements above.
It is suggested that each group decide on the items they wish to subsequently compare in the next section. These should be defined as headings which are used for the company. This provides the points for comparison as well as helps organise your work in a professional and readable format.
For example, you may wish to use the following sub-headings:
1. Details for remuneration committee and its membership.
2. Allocation of Executive Remuneration (Fixed pay/STIs/LTIs)3. Mix of performance measures used
4. (This could be used to consider the use of or weightings of Financial Performance measures such as EPS/ROI/ROE versus non-financial measures such as balanced scorecards etc.)
5. Report any changes in Executive Remuneration Reporting – 2016 versus 2017
6. Company performance (Total Shareholder Value) versus executive pay
(This could compare the change in company share price AND dividends or Earnings per Share versus executive pay – e.g. Company share price is going up and pay is coming down – or visa-versa?)
Summary of findings – Bring together the findings of the group members about the company and a discussion about how effective (or ineffective) the company‟s remuneration program appears to be in improving company performance.
Analysis of remuneration methods used – Ensure you consider how well the company‟s approach worked in encouraging higher performance by the executive team and consider if this translated to higher COMPANY PERFORMANCE. (Note it may be difficult to separate executive performance from overall company performance – say by considering the share price – as other market and industry factors may also influence share price.)
Recommendations – present any recommendations you may have, SUPPORTED BY THE LITERATURE, on how the company may improve the reporting or broaden their performance measures.
Conclusion – Here NO NEW IDEAS should be introduced. Only a conclusion of your findings and perhaps your group‟s nomination of which company has the best remuneration system and what your group believes can be learned from the report and the method of remunerating manager‟s in organisations. i.e. „Remind‟ the reader, why you undertook the report (no – not because you HAD TO DO IT!) and the purpose of remuneration systems. It should LINK with the Introduction.
Bibliography – Full Harvard Anglia referencing should be undertaken for this report.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQs)
This section has been provided to assist and guide students in creating your report, the things that may be useful to include, more detail on how marks will be awarded and tips on working in groups.
How can you find all that data for your company?
Download and review the last 2 year‟s annual reports from the relevant corporate websites and search “Remuneration Report”. Additionally, I would recommend reading the latest Chairman‟s and CEO‟s Reports to see what is being said about what is the most important management consideration going forward and READ the explanatory notes and summary in the downloaded report.
Academic articles and how to use them
Several academic articles have been placed in the Assignment Folder on Moodle which you can refer to include more in-depth analysis. Please note that some of these have very lengthy sections on the methodology the writers used to test their hypotheses. It is NOT IMPORTANT that you read all that material. However, it IS IMPORTANT to read ABOUT what it was they were trying to test (called a hypothesis) and then their conclusions and summary at the end to see what they discovered.
Does anything in these articles match what you have found? If so, write about it and quote that article, if not, do NOT include that article. Alternatively, spend a few minutes researching using EBSCOHOST (NOT just Google or Wikipedia) and find articles that you can use.
Your report must include a summary of the academic journal articles you have found and your subsequent research findings and include a full bibliography in the Harvard Anglia style.
Industry and Companies will be allocated to each group during the ‘workshop/tutorials’ in ‘week 6’ held immediately after the Mid-Trimester Exam. Begin your research of the academic literature NOW searching EBSCOHOST and any other academic search engine (see the great resources made available through the KOI Library and website!) to find at least three to four articles for EACH group member. Start reading and reviewing this literature immediately so you will be better informed when you are allocated your company for review!
The GROUP PRESENTION OVERVIEW
The Group Presentation will give the lecturer the opportunity to ask questions of each student to explain any points raised in their report that may require clarification and to demonstrate their higher level of critical evaluation of the topic and its application.
1. Student assessment:
Group report (20 Subject marks):
· You must use a word processor to correctly format and complete the task.
· This is a mark awarded to the group however your individual mark may be adjusted up or down depending on the individual contribution to the report.
· Ensure the individual sections (company review) are labelled with each student‟s name and ID.
Oral presentation (10 Subject mark weighting):
· Oral presentations will take place in Weeks 10-12 where the group will have an opportunity (no more than 15 minutes IN TOTAL for each GROUP) to further demonstrate their understanding of the entities and the work you have done in researching these entities. (Order of presentations will be decided by random ballot held in-class (lecture) on or before Week 9.)
· These 10 marks will be awarded by the tutor/assessor individually based on the presentation itself and the notes provided.
· All group members should be part of the presentation and typically,PowerPoint presentations are prepared and printed.
· “Outline” copies of the presentation should be given to the lec
Holding a PhD degree in Finance, Dr. John Adams is experienced in assisting students who are in dire need...
55 - Completed Orders
Canada, Toronto I have acquired my degree from Campion College at the University of Regina Occuption/Desi...
52 - Completed Orders
Even since I was a student in Italy I had a passion for languages, in fact I love teaching Italian, and I...
102 - Completed Orders
To work with an organization where I can optimally utilize my knowledge and skills for meeting challenges...
109 - Completed Orders
JOB OBJECTIVE Seeking entry level assignments in Marketing & Business Development with an organization...
202 - Completed Orders
Current work profile Project manager- The Researchers Hub (2nd Jan 2016 to presently working) Researc...
20 - Completed Orders
Sales Assistant, Mito Marina Assigned to the Stationery dept – assisted in merchandising, stock taking...
100 - Completed Orders
Personal Profile Dedicated and highly experienced private chauffeur. High energy, hardworking, punctua...
200 - Completed Orders
I'm Lizzy, full time education specialist in English, Essay Writing, Economics and Maths. Having Assi...
109 - Completed Orders