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Management & Operations

Management & Operations


There are two basic reasons why management and operations is a crucial element for the development of any enterprise and that is to achieve growth and stability. In order to improve the efficiency of manufacturing processes, business process, workforce management, customer relationship management and distribution of products operations managers are required by every enterprise out there.  A commercial enterprise is engaged in a variety of process and proper planning is needed in every step. Marriott International group of hotels from UK is the organization for this report. The paper discusses how using various policies and process of management and operations this hotel maintains its position in the middle of competition in UK and beyond.

P1 Define and compare the different roles and characteristics of a leader and a manager.

Leadership is the attribute a person possess which helps them lead teams and make followers believe in a goal or an objective. Managers are practitioners of the managerial policies and disciplines to ensure objectives are achieved and expectations are met. Both the leaders and managers have a big role to play in organizations like the Marriott International in UK. The leader in this chain of hotels is essentially the one which causes inspiration, influences actions and encourages people to work to achieve shared goals. The main objective of the organization is to excel itself in customer service. Leaders inspire the workforce to do this effectively in Marriott UK.  On the other hand, the manager plays a role of connection and communication in between the shareholders of the hotel and the customers, vendors, workforce and other elements of the business. The primary managerial functions and control are put in place by the manager. There exist some primary differences in the characteristics of a leader and a manager (Annarelli and Nonino, 2016).

In Mariott International Uk, the following key differences in the features of its various managers and leaders are witnessed.

Approach- The approach of the leader in the hotel is to set the direction on the right path. The leader envisions the future goal of the firm and accordingly inspires the human force to work in that direction. The manager, on the other hand, makes plans and strategies to give these visual directions of the leader some meaningful tasks and steps. This is crucial for the overall understanding of the team.

Attributes- The leader always is said to be foresighted than the manager. The manager uses their mindset to ensure everything is in place in the operations of the firm but the leader visualizes the future and proposes new goals.

Subordinate- Both leaders and manages has some subordinates under them. For the leader, their subordinates are called as followers as they follow them naturally. Here motivation and inspiration play a big role. For a manager the subordinates are just employees who are delivering tasks as per the directions of the supervisory officer.

Style of work – There exist some key differences between the style of work of leaders as well as managers. Leaders use the transformational style of work in order to transform or bring a change of mindset amongst the employees. If any employee is witnessed to be undergoing resistance leaders communicate and make them understand the right thing. Manages, on the other hand, uses the transactional style of operations. Employees are under this style of operation appreciated and rewarded if they perform good and reprimanded if they perform wrongful actions.

Decision making- Leaders help in the decision making of the hotel group in UK. They predict future outcomes and events and propose future objectives to the shareholders. Manages, on the other hand, makes decisions. They take steps to ensure that the human workforce is working as per the desired steps.

Objective - To ensure that the enterprise develops and progresses are the two primary aim of leaders. The main goal of the managers, on the other hand, is to ensure everything is achieved and results are attained as per expectations.

Focus- The main focus of the leader is over their followers. The focus of the manager is over the business process, techniques and clients betterment.

From the above few instances, it can be witnessed that there is a basic difference in the approach and mindset of leaders and managers in the organization.

P2 Examine examples of how the role of a leader and the function of a manager apply in different situational contexts

Leadership and management vastly depend on situations. In many ways, one can interpret this. Using the various roles played by these leaders and managers, organizations like Mariott International in UK work in fulfilling their business objectives. Based on different situations and contexts, different kind of styles of leadership and management practices are implemented in the hotel firm. The hotel is in a situation where it must keep its costs of operations low and increase its turnovers as well as maintain its competitive positioning. In these situations using varied effective managerial functions and leadership skills, leaders and managers can strategize how to manage costs and improve revenue. In this regard different kind of theories is used in order for the organization to grow. The management and operations department of Mariott International in UK focuses mainly on the theories of management. They cut down on the cost of operations by using varied leadership and management strategies in a combined manner. The managers of the firm make strategic planning as for how they can choose better vendors for the day to day raw materials required in the hotel kitchen. Leaders can keep its work once motivated by using better technique. Employees are needed to be retained and that is possible if the workforce possesses the least resistance towards new changes.

Leaders in Marriott use effective communication skills in order to eliminate all kind of resistance from employees. Trust is developed by listening to employee problems and doubts and resolving them. Management by objective is used for combining managerial efforts and employee efforts in order to accomplish goals of the firm. Performance standards are set by managers and duties are a delegate. Classical theories of management are implemented in the enterprise where various managerial policies are used for enhancing productivity. The situation of the hotel calls for a strategy implementation where managers and leaders focus on regular improvements in their business process and employee performance. Here participative style of leadership is used widely in order to encourage more participation from the workers. Employee empowerment is used in order to engage more and more competent staff members in the decision making of the organization. This creates an enhancement of job satisfaction in the employees. Such employees tend to stick with the organization longer  (Spodek, 2015). Employee opinions and feedbacks are taken by the leaders under this style of communication regarding improvements in customer service quality and reduction of costs. The company also uses the behavioral theory of management in certain areas where employee organizational behavior is designed and developed as per desired expectations. Employee skills and competencies are explored by leaders under transformational leadership styles to communicate employees in a much more effective manner. Based on transformations occurring to situations various contingency based theories are also used in order to give the power to the enterprise to focus and manage the changes. Leaders and managers play a crucial role in this as they inspire workforce in order to bring desired changes in the operations or processes for availing better returns.

P3 Apply different theories and models of approach, including situational leadership, systems leadership and contingency.

Different type of leadership and management theories and styles are implemented by the Marriott groups in order to manage the organization and to make sure all the business operations run effectively. A general understanding explains how situations can have an impact on the style of leadership in leaders. An effective form of leadership requires the leaders to have special qualities and knowledge about various theories and models. All these theories help managers and leaders of Marriott judge and understand the people with whom they are working, understanding of the effect of various styles of management and leadership on workforce and how effective is a certain style in a specific situation.

Situational theory – This is also popularly known as the contingency model of leadership. Here the situation makes a determination about the specific style of leadership which will be the most effective and proper to deal with issues and problems in a situation. As per the contingency approach of leadership it makes a proposal that based on the traits of the organization or the workgroup the behavior and effectiveness of leaders are determined (Chakrabarti, 2014).

Trait leadership model- This genre of leadership is totally related to the effect or traits of the leaders. This theory defines that good leaders are not born with traits. Rather they train themselves to inculcate inside them the necessary traits and skills they need to perform as per their own expectations. Hence one can learn and execute leadership capabilities with academics and practice.

Behavioral approach- This is one of the most important theories which define the style of leadership and behavior performed by people working as leaders in organizations like Marriott. These behavioral traits are extremely important for leaders to manage different situations at workplaces (Tracy, 2008).

Management by objectives –MBO or management by objectives is a model of management where the main aim is enhancing the quality of performance of enterprises by ensuring that the goals and objectives of the concern are cleared to all and mutually understood and agreed upon by the workers and the management. As per this theory, an active commitment, contribution, and performance of all employees are needed. Hence the manager makes sure every staff member clearly understands why they are performing a certain task, what effect it will bring upon to the success of the hotel Marriott, and whether the interest of the worker is aligned with the internet of the organization. Managers of Marriott International UK ensure that employees work as per management by objectives (Investopedia, 2017).

Chaos theory – The unpredictable nature of systems and situations is denoted under the chaos theory of management. In the context of an organization, employees are given a complete freedom to take decisions on their own. Here employees use their self-motivation to explore solutions to various job tasks assigned to them with no intervention from any manager or leader. The responsibility of the manager as per this theory is lesser. However, they are engaged in directing the employees so they take decisions in the right manner. Marriott hotel enterprise of UK does not use this principle as there are risks associated with it. Employees are directed exactly the way they are supposed to perform their tasks and monitoring is made to see that it is made in the right direction (Galbraith, 2004).

P4 Explain the key approaches to operations management and the role that leaders and managers play

One of the most important managerial areas of the hotel is operations management. This managerial area designs exactly how a business is supposed to undergo its daily operations in the best cost-effective manner to gain maximized returns. For a hotel, this is possible because every hotel has a specific pattern. The entire process of a customer checking in with a hotel, their period of stay till they check out follows a single pattern. Operations management department of Marriott is responsible to ensure that services provided during this entire time period are of the highest quality for every guest. Here the product itself is the hotel and the service is the experience for which the customer can undergo repeat stay in the future. The firm utilizes its resources in the best possible manner in order to satisfy the demands of its customers. Operations management is primarily responsible for all the operations in relation to the hotel. Tactical decision making is an integral part of the utilization of resource for ensuring competitive advantages (Farnen, 2018). The demand of customers must always be met with supply in the form of human service time, effort, and behavior.

Resource management- One of the primary roles played by operations manager at the hotel enterprise is to manage and keep a control on their personnel which is the raw materials for this enterprise. Having an oversight of the employees, various hotel product requirements, HR tasks, employee hiring, vacancy forecasting, planning, staff development, motivational techniques all come under the job role of the operations manager.

Management of funds – One of the primary roles performed by the operations manager is their role in keeping costs under control, budgeting and keeping the financial track record of the hotel effective and accurate. The management of a hotel needs to negotiate with many resource vendors which are a way to keep costs low. The team makes regular business forecasts, sales report analysis and tracks resources to ensure no extra expenses are undergone. Cost befit calculation analysis is also undertaken in order to improve the efficiency of the hotel organization for a sustainable future (Ning and Sobel, 2017).

Set goals – The operations and management department of the Marriott Hotel organization is also primarily responsible for setting various targets and objectives of the business in the different departments of the enterprise. The operations manager makes a forecast of sales of the hotel and accordingly advises HR, for example, to make better service quality available to customers. With the help of the insights analyzed by the operations manager, the entire team can benefit and implement better policies in the organization (Choi, Cheng, and Zhao, 2016).

Monitoring – The operations managerial role also encompasses tracking of performances and results of the business. Unless the results are tracked the management cannot come to a conclusion whether policies placed are working positively or not.

Communications – Effective communication and efficient quality interpersonal skills are used by the operations manager to work together with the various departments of the organization. The job of the operations manager comprises of ensuring that a harmonious and positive work culture prevails within the enterprise. Communication is improved by measuring them regularly. Whenever there is a disharmony detected the managerial team fixes it before moving forward.


P5 Explain the importance and value of operations management in achieving business objectives.  

Commonly people often consider that the operations management is mainly associate with a manufacturing business. It is not the case.  It is indeed true that any manufacturing industry is more associated with multiple operations and processes which requires effective management.  The concept of operations management can be associated with any kind of an industry. For the service industry like Marriott hotel services, the hotel undergoes a plethora of different processes each day in understanding what the need of their customers are, getting a positive feedback on the service provided, maintain the workforce motivation and also staying ahead of competing brands in the country (Usman, 2016).. A large number of different operations are needed to be managed. The basic aim of the operations manager in Marriott is to ensure that the demand of their guests is met.  The operations management department is the heart and soul of the hotel discussed. In this hotel, this department designs the services which the hotel aims at providing its customers. Taking insights from the market research made by the marketing department the operations manager understands the activities of competitive hotels which keeps them successful. Better services and amenities are planned and executed for the hotel's customers. The efficiency and effectiveness of the functioning of the entire hotel Marriott are sustained with the help of this department. The efficiency of the hotel is ascertaining how well it uses the resources as much as is need by using human labor and input in serving the consumers. Maximising profits for the shareholders are realized and achieved by the management and operations of Marriott. The department keeps a close vigil to ensure no amount of tangible or intangible sources of resources are wasted. Minimum use of resources and maximum achievement of outputs are the two moral obligations of the operations department (Joglekar,  Davies and Anderson, 2016).

Businesses like Marriott has realized in the modern world that just like how their HR, marketing or finance departments are important, so is the operations and management department. The firm realizes that it if wishes to compete against global brands it must utilize operational strategic planning in alignment with the firm’s overall corporate objectives and mission.  Making all the processes within the organization in the right full manner is all about this department of management. Using any single innovation no organization can achieve complete success.  The basic secret to a successful future is the creation of a robust strategy where the brand enjoys a complete competitive advantage for the long term.

One of the primary functionality of a business is its operations. It impacts the competency of an enterprise to be able to complete. It opens up different windows of opportunity for the organization to increase their productivity as well as profitability. This is a subject which is considered to be one large area of employment all over the world today in every sector owing to is increasing importance to business entrepreneurs. A large portion of asset creation for an organization is possible due to operations department of the organization. In a nutshell, it can be said that this one managerial department is responsible for managing operations of other departments of the organization.

P6 Assess the relationship between leadership and management within the wider business environment

CSR or corporate social responsibility is one of most significant part of the service industry. Marriott international hotel in UK is extremely conscious about this. There are many external forces which require organizations to respond and be responsible. The social concern of the consumer also creates an influence over how they approach the service industry. Socially responsible practices, purchase decision all are influenced by the motive of the hotel to contribute for the greater good. To undergo this, leaders and manager of Marriott plays s significant role.

One of the key implementation of CSR at Marriott is ethical leadership and management practices. Ethical leadership is appropriate conducts made through leaders and managers using various interpersonal relationships and actions to encourage effective two-way communication with employees, fair decision making and reinforcements (White, 2015). These are also summoned as social managers which ensure that employees are treated ethically within the workplace (Silvestre and Gimenes, 2017). Balance decisions are made at all levels to give maximum work support to the workers of the Marriott. This is also an effective way to retain staff members within the enterprise. Moreover, a large amount of influences is made by the leader if he or she conducts ethically. The subordinates learn to practice the same this overall making the hotel an ethical workplace. It is the reasonability of the leaders and managers at the hotel to ensure identification and impart learning and psychological training to the employees. Ethical managers and leaders act as a genuine source of guidance or a business role model whom people follow.

CSR is today considered as a norm which either directly or indirectly every commercial organization must contribute in order to bring social and environmental welfare to the society and community. In Marriott, this is ensured by being engaged in various CSR activities. The economic interest of the organization will always be profit maximization. However the aim is also to ensure minimum energy is used and wastage is made. Managers of Marriott ensure to hire and open opportunities for local human resource so that they can be a cause of improving the living standards and quality of life of the people in the society. Effective leadership principles and governance help in integrating sustainability in the day to day operations of the hotel. It is true that in order to sustainability to be maintained in the Marriott the leaders and managers has initiated various programs to encourage and improve the awareness of the employees of the enterprise (Stuart, 2002). The general knowledge imparted to all the staff members does the right thing. The leaders posses the foresight and the courage needed to bring enormous changes in the operations wherever they are noticing anomalies. The entire operational management infrastructure and governance in the hotel are designed in a way that it helps in the sustainable development of the hotel. The strategic direction is set by the Board of the Marriott and the leaders and manager implemented it in real time.


To organizations of all size and scales, operations management is a compulsory sector. Companies always require producing the best possible product or services at the minimal expenditures to the end user. In practice, however, companies face a different kind of problems which sometimes acts as constraints in achieving this objective. Decision making is based completely on research an analysis of the various trends and patterns related to an enterprise. No company can bypass the problems and excel towards an accurate entity without the support from the operations management. With effective operations management, the case study enterprise Marriott in UK is able to bring sustainable development and smooth functioning of its operations in the country. This ensures that the firm receives a competitive advantage in the world by strategizing operations at par with international standards.


Annarelli, A. and Nonino, F., (2016). Strategic and operational management of organizational resilience: Current state of research and future directions. Omega, 62, pp.1-18

Chakrabarti, B. (2014).6 leadership theories to define effectiveness.Available http://life11.org/2014/12/06/6-leadership-theories/. Last accessed 12th December 2017

Choi, T.M., Cheng, T.C.E. and Zhao, X., (2016).Multi‐Methodological Research in Operations Management.Production and Operations Management, 25(3), pp.379-389.

Joglekar, N.R., Davies, J. and Anderson, E.G., (2016).The role of industry studies and public policies in production and operations management.Production and Operations Management, 25(12), pp.1977-2001.

Farnen, K. (2018). The Role of an Operations Manager. Available: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/role-operations-manager-14234.html. Last accessed 1st May 2018.

Galbraith, P. (2004). Organisational leadership and chaos theory. Journal Of Educational Administration, 42(1), 9-28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09578230410517440

Investopedia, (2017). Management By Objectives - MBO. Available: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/management-by-objectives.asp. Last accessed 1st May 2018.

Ning, J. and Sobel, M.J., (2017). Production and capacity management with internal financing.Manufacturing & Service Operations Management.


Stuart, I. (2002). Effective case research in operations management: a process perspective. Journal of Operations Management. 20 (5), 419-433.

Silvestre, B.S. and Gimenes, F.A.P., (2017). A sustainability paradox? Sustainable operations in the offshore oil and gas industry: The case of Petrobras. Journal of Cleaner Production, 142, pp.360-370.

Spodek, J. (2015). The Difference between Leadership and Management. Available: https://www.inc.com/joshua-spodek/the-difference-between-leadership-and-management.html. Last accessed 11th Dec 2017.

Tracy, B. (2008). The Role of a Leader. Available: https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/189618. Last accessed 11th Dec 2017.

Usman, M. (2016). The Role and Significance of Operation Management. Available: http://www.academia.edu/9658542/The_Role_and_Significance_of_Operation_Management. Last accessed 11th Dec 2017.

White, G.(2015).Publication Productivity in Educational Leadership Journals.. International Journal of Educational Reform. 8 (4), 419-23 





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