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Limitations Of Different Database Technologies

Limitations Of Different Database Technologies


A.C.1.1 critically compares different data models


The hierarchical model: 

The hierarchical information figure organizes records in a tree structure. There is a hierarchy regarding father or mother and baby data parts. This structure suggests up to expectation a report perform the bear iterating information, typically within the child information parts. Thiswholly gathers the situations on a particular file together as much a file type. File types are the equivalent concerning tables between the R models, or together with the individual files being the equal concerning rows. These affect hyperlinks in these report kinds, hierarchical model usage Close relative Child Relationships. It is a “1: N” mapping among record types. It is taken via the use of trees, like “Set theory” aged in the R (“Relation”) - model, "rented" beside math.

2: network data Model

The recognition concerning the community data dummy paralleled with the popularity about the hierarchical statistics model. Particular information was greater obviously demonstrated including more than some mother or father per child. Thus, the network model accredited the representative regarding “many-to-many” relations into data.

Gray, Jim (September 2013).
3: relational model: 
A “database” primarily based over the interactive model promoted by means of “E.F. Cod”. A “relational database” approves the setting about facts structures, storage yet retrieval procedures and fairness limitations. Uncertain a database the facts or members of the family of them are prepared into tables. The table is a series about archives then every record of a desk incorporates the equal arenas. The most common model, the relational model varieties statistics into tables, additionally recognised as much relations, each of who consists on the field however record. Each unproductivity lists an attribute of the entity between question, such so cost, code, and then beginning date. Collected, the qualities into a rapport are known as a domain. A specific quality or combination over attributes is choice so an essential answer up to expectation execute stay referred according to among ignoble tables, then it’s known as a foreign key.

Each row, additionally called a tuple, consists of information as regards a specific occasion about the being into question, such so a unique member. The model also accounts for the sorts on relationships within these tables, including “one-to-one”, “one-to-many”, and “many-to-many” relations

Goods about the R- database: 

ü  Morals have Atomic.

ü   Every Record is Unique.

ü   Column Standards are concerning the Similar Kind

ü  The Order about the field is Unimportant.

ü  The Order over the record is Unimportant.

ü   Every field has a unique identifier.

Gray, Jim (September 2013).

Object-oriented model

This model defines a database as like a collection regarding objects, yet refillable software elements, with related applications or methods. There are a number of kinds regarding Oops databases:

A hypermedia database comprises television, such namely pictures, to that amount could no longer remain saved among a “relational database. A hypertext database allows somebody target to hyperlink in accordance with anybody despicable entity. It’s useful for organizing plenty regarding improper data; however, it’s now not ideal because of arithmetical analysis. The oops (“object-oriented “) database model is the best recognized post “relational database” prototype, because such contains tables, but isn’t restricted in conformity with tables. Such models are also known namely hybrid models.

Reinsch, R. (2012)

A.C.1.2 critically discuss the benefits and limitations of different database technologies



Data warehousing:

Data boring is the process about analysing information beyond specific perspectives yet brief that within useful statistics - data as do remain ancient in imitation of increase revenue, cuts costs, or both. Data excavation software program is one concerning wide variety over analytical equipment because of exploring data. It approves users excite information out of dense exclusive dimensions or angles, range it, then cut short the relations recognized. Precisely, information excavation is the system over finding correlations then patterns among a lot over fields of giant relational databases ().A records warehouse is a collection about databases to that amount assignment together. An information store makes that possible in conformity with combine facts out of a couple of databases, who perform deliver instant insights into the data. The last purpose about a database is not simply in accordance with shop data, however in conformity with help agencies performs choices primarily based of that data. A data warehouse supports that purpose through supplying a structure then tools in imitation of methodically arrange yet understand facts beside a couple of databases ().

Advantages on Data Mining Marketing/Retail:

Data boring helps advertising groups build fashions primarily based on historical records to portend any wish reply in imitation of the instant advertising and marketing campaigns such so prescribe mail, on-line advertising campaign…etc. Through the results, marketer’s intention holds excellent strategy after selling profitable merchandise in accordance with targeted customers. Economics/Investment: Data boring gives financial institutions information about loan facts yet savings reporting. Through constructing a model beyond historic client’s data, the financial institution or economic organization be able determine proper then defective credits. In addition, facts mining assistances banks discover imposing deposit visiting card transactions in conformity with shield credit score card’s holder.


Bachman, Charles W. (2014)



By making use of data mining between operational engineering data, manufacturers perform become aware of bad equipment’s or determine superior control parameters.

For example, electronic part manufacturers have an assignment that too the prerequisites regarding manufactured surroundings at distinct wafer manufacturing plants are related, the exorcism on the cracker are fascicle the same or half because unknown motives even has defects. Administrations: Data mining helps governance enterprise by means of the dig yet analysing documents on financial traffic in imitation of build designs so much do detect cash filtering then criminal activities.


Drawbacks about records excavation Confidentiality Issues: The worries touching the personal privacy have been increasing rather recently especially when net is thriving along convivial systems, media, etc.

Since concerning privacy issues, human beings are funky on their private records is accumulated or aged within unprincipled path so much probably inflicting them a brush about difficult

Oracle is DBMS built by way of SUN microsystem which is the principal advantage so well so this expertise on an Oracle is so much that is the useful solely for full-size organization including stability Complex database requirement.

Consequently, capabilities stability concerning Oracle stability is:

• Oracle helps widespread file.

• It performance every transaction separately and the resultant is not seen to sordid traffic until it is a comprehensive. Which varieties Database protected.

• It makes use of on a trigger or cursor making software design easy.

• It may take care of the database about any greatness and no on a record.

Drawback about Oracle durability

• Only beneficial because managing significant application perform now not be back together with baby organization.

• Price yet hardware value required in conformity with drive such are altogether high.

Beynon–Davies, Paul (2013)

Microsoft structure software design sound then SQL is nearly widely back Query durability sound with the bunch deep benefits:

• It is extensively old because handling “relational database.”

• It is communicating conveniently to make yet to understand.

• It is viable or do conduct concerning anybody sort regarding device such as laptops and mainframes or cell headsets.

• It is reliable yet has robust security mechanism.

• It performs assignment n consumer server building model by means of connecting turn stop software with the again quit database.

• It can aid the destination based totally programming and perform integrate stability including higher stage software design languages like java by way of the use of stability or API named JDBC. 

Beynon–Davies, Paul (2013) 

A.C.1.3 Analyse different approaches to database design


There are two classical approaches to database design:

Top down:  Top-down format starts by identifying the information units then since describes the statistics factors for each of those sets. This technique involves the proof of identity regarding unique nature sorts then the assignment regarding each entity’s characteristics.

Bottom-up diagram preceding detects the facts factors or since agencies to them together between information sets. In sordid words, that advance describes qualities, yet afterwards businesses to them to shape objects.

The twin’s procedures are demonstrated within the according to Figure:

database implementation assignment

The determination about a predominant power regarding “top-down” then “bottom-up” strategies oft relies upon about the opportunity concerning the problem then of private favourites. Although the joining practices are corresponding as a substitute than jointly limited, an important accent on a bottom-up method may also be extra originate because little databases including temperate objects, characteristics, relationships, yet dealings. For situations in which the quantity, diversity, then difficulty on objects, relations, and dealings is crushing, an in particular “top-down” method may additionally stay more without problems achieved. 

Gray, Jim (September 2013)

Centralized graph is originated when the records aspect is created concerning a highly younger wide variety concerning objects and procedures. The layout can remain led out then represented within a pretty simple database. Centralized diagram is usual on fairly simple and/or younger databases then be able stand effectively committed by means of an odd individual (database administrator) or by way of a small, informal layout team. The business enterprise operations or the scope of the hassle are sufficiently restricted in imitation of allowing too a single designer to define the problem(s), create the conceptual design, verify the conceptual graph together with the person views, define provision techniques then records constraints in imitation the efficacy concerning the design, yet assure as the sketch wish comply with whole the requirements. The following figure summarizes the centralized format option. Note up to expectation a single conceptual format is full or below validated within the centralized sketch approach.

Centralized design:

Decentralized illustration would possibly stay ancient then the facts factor on the system has a considerable quantity on entities yet complicated relations concerning who altogether complicated processes are accomplished. Decentralized diagram is also probably in accordance with the stand devoted now the bother themselves is thoroughness across numerous operational websites or every factor is a subclass concerning the complete statistics set. Deliberate the accordant plan. 

Bachman, Charles W. (2014)

Centralized VS. Decentralized Design:

 The pair ordinary methods (bottom-up or top-down) in conformity with database design perform keep influenced by means of elements such namely the scope and altar regarding the system, the company’s administration style, yet the company’s structure (centralized then decentralized). Depending on such factors, the database graph may also stay primarily based of joining dead exclusive design philosophies: centralized then decentralized.

hnd database assignment

Centralize Design

Decentralized design:

In substantial and complex schemes, the database plan typically cannot lie committed by using solely some person. In its place, a diligently elect crew regarding database engineers is busy to address a complicated database scheme. Inside the distributed sketch outline, the database graph venture is correct into several units. Once the plan criteria have been well-known, the leading designer assigns format subsets yet modules after plan agencies inside the crew. Each format group makes a conceptual facts model like in accordance with the subset existence modelled. Every abstract mannequin is below tested for my part in opposition to the person views, procedures, and restrictions because every on the units. After the verification process has been accomplished, every module is integrated in certain abstract model. Obviously, after the subsections bear been combined among a larger abstract model, the administration manner designer must affirm that the blended conceptual mannequin is still capable in conformity with support all about the mandatory dealings. 

Keep from idea to that amount the quantity method requires the fashion designer in accordance with effect a model in as a range of total problems should remain addressed.

Beynon–Davies, Paul (2013)

Departments may understand the same goal by distinct names, then they would possibly utilize the identical name according to tackle specific objects (homonyms). The destination may keep an object, a quality, and then an association. 

• Stability Object or essence subtypes. A nature subtype might lie viewed namely solve with the aid of some or greater departments. The designer need to combine such subtypes into a “higher-

Level” object. 

• Contradictory destination meanings. Characteristics can be recorded as much one-of-a-kind kinds, and distinctive domains can be described because the same characteristic. Restriction descriptions, too, do vary. The designer must recover certain conflicts from the model.

Bachman, Charles W. (2014)

A.C.2.3 Apply a range of database tools and techniques to enhance the user interface to meet the given case study requirements.




/****** Object:  Table [dbo].[Location]    Script Date: 03/10/2018 17:09:01 ******/





CREATE TABLE [dbo].[Location](

               [Location_id] [nvarchar](50) NOT NULL,

               [Location_Name] [nvarchar](50) NULL,

               [Street] [nvarchar](50) NULL,

               [City] [nvarchar](50) NULL,



               [Location_id] ASC







/****** Object:  Table [dbo].[Department]    Script Date: 03/10/2018 17:13:50 ******/





CREATE TABLE [dbo].[Department](

               [Department_id] [nvarchar](50) NOT NULL,

               [Department_Name] [nvarchar](50) NULL,



               [Department_id] ASC







/****** Object:  Table [dbo].[Auctioneer]    Script Date: 03/10/2018 17:18:39 ******/







CREATE TABLE [dbo].[Auctioneer](

               [Auctioneer_Fname] [nvarchar](50) NULL,

               [Auctioneer_LName] [nvarchar](50) NOT NULL,

               [Auctioneer_NIN] [nvarchar](50) NULL,

               [Auctioneer_dob] [datetime] NULL,

               [Auctioneer_street] [nvarchar](50) NULL,

               [Auctioneer_City] [nvarchar](50) NULL,

               [Auctioneer_Gender] [char](10) NULL,

               [Auctioneer_Salary] [float] NULL,



               [Auctioneer_LName] ASC






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