According to Ghaziri,Hassan. (2014), Knowledge is the most important factor of production, next to labor, land and capital. It is about managing and sharing knowledge for the development of an organization. In the competitive business world, knowledge management (KM) has become more essential for the sustainable development of organizations. In the 21st century knowledge and KM become the most professional element in many fields of knowledge, such as, education, cognitive science, health, sociology, management science, information science, computer science, information and technology, economics, philosophy, psychology, knowledge engineering, artificial intelligence and all branches of business. Through the application of successful KM, organizations can improve their effectiveness and can gain competitive advantage. KM helps in the decision making process for the benefit of a company. It leads to higher efficiency in terms of less duplication of work, followed by notably better performance, enhancing new staffs’ capabilities and better quality decisions.
According to Carles, (2014), In computing, data is information that has been translated into a form that is efficient for movement or processing. Relative to today's computers and transmission media, data is information converted into binary digital form. It is acceptable for data to be used as a singular subject or a plural subject. Data is measured, collected and reported, and analyzed, whereupon it can be visualized using graphs, images or other analysis tools. Data as a general concept refers to the fact that some existing information or knowledge is represented or coded in some form suitable for better usage or processing. Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it is that which answers the question of "what an entity is" and thus defines both its essence and nature of its characteristics. It is associated with data, as data represents values attributed to parameters, and information is data in context and with meaning attached. Information relates also to knowledge, as knowledge signifies understanding of an abstract or concrete concept. In terms of communication, information is expressed either as the content of a message or through direct or indirect observation. That which is perceived can be construed as a message in its own right, and in that sense, information is always conveyed as the content of a message. Information can be encoded into various forms for transmission and interpretation (for example, information may be encoded into a sequence of signs, or transmitted via a signal). It can also be encrypted for safe storage and communication. Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning. Knowledge can refer to a theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It can be implicit (as with practical skill or expertise) or explicit (as with the theoretical understanding of a subject); it can be more or less formal or systematic.
According to Dillich, (2016), Information believed by an individual as justified truth and stored in memory (i.e. it can be retrieved) in a cognitive structure through a cognitive process called learning. Individual knowledge and organizational knowledge are distinct yet interdependent. The extent to w hich each individual interacts with the other depends on the organizational culture (Bhatt, 1998). We take this view because in the present environment, individuals in the organizations need to make many quick decisions to resolve customers’ problems. Instead of using rules and regulations as directed from the hierarchy, employees are forced to make many judgments to solve business problems efficiently. Organizational knowledge is the type of company asset to which no value can be named. When individuals pool their knowledge within an organization, that knowledge can give the organization advantages over others in the same field. Organizational learning and organizational knowledge have seen important growth in both the academic and business worlds. This duality between individual knowledge and organizational knowledge demands different sets of management strategies in knowledge
For any teaching and dissemination there is a need to recognise the applicability of different levels of teaching required. In this case, knowledge management at the strategic level requires the organisation to analyse and plan its business in terms of the knowledge it currently has and the knowledge it needs for future business processes. At the tactical level the organisation is concerned with identifying and formalising existing knowledge, acquiring new knowledge for future use, archiving it in organisational memories and creating systems that enable effective and efficient application of the knowledge within the organisation. At the operational level knowledge is used in everyday practice by professional personnel who need access to the right knowledge, at the right time, in the right location (James, 2012). Therefore using these three perspectives and from considering the knowledge management dissemination requirements of the large organisations we have worked with, three distinct target profiles have emerged:
1. Knowledge Development Managers who need a business-oriented perspective of available tools and techniques to manage knowledge assets better. There is typically a senior member of the organisation who has the remit of managing the knowledge management initiative, identifying key knowledge management projects and ensuring that these projects meet the overall business objectives of the organisation.
2. Knowledge Developers who need to be able to capture, structure and analyse knowledge by working with the appropriate professional personnel. According to Dillich, (2016) The captured knowledge is then structured, analysed and may be distributed in reports, or through intranets, or implemented in knowledge-based systems. Knowledge Developers range from IT specialists with good programming skills to retrained professionals with a good understanding of their knowledge domain. They are drawn from the many business units in the organisation. These are the personnel whom the organisation have selected to establish their knowledge asset base (Raymond, 2011).
3. Professional Personnel who need to be aware that their knowledge can be managed effectively and need to appreciate how it can be more widely shared and re-used within the organisation. It is important that once the organisation has established a knowledge management programme, these knowledge workers appreciate its importance and understand how to pro-actively contribute. The overall approach which we take for knowledge management is a modelling approach - in other words, decisions are based on models of the organisation. However we have found that the three groups listed above need different perspectives on the knowledge assets:
According to Ghaziri, Hassan (2014), The term “knowledge assets” refers to the accumulated intellectual resources of your organization. It is the knowledge possessed by your organization and its workforce in the form of information, ideas, learning, understanding, memory, insights, cognitive and technical skills, and capabilities. The potential and actual knowledge assets include the following assets:
Experiential knowledge assets -are the ones that are gained through mutual hands-on experience of the members of the organization, and between the members of the organization and its stakeholders. According to Carles (2014), Skills, know-how, care, love, trust, facial expressions and gestures are among the examples of experiential knowledge assets. As can be inferred from the above given examples, these assets are tacit, and it is difficult to be aware of them. However they are very valuable because they are firm specific and inimitable (Nonaka, 2012).
Routine knowledge assets - are another type of tacit assets that have become routine and reflected in the actions and practices of the organization. Know-how, culture and the way of performing the day-to-day business are considered as routine assets. They can be gained through stories and myths about the company and they are very practical (Raymond, 2011).
Conceptual knowledge assets - are more explicit in nature and they are transmitted through images, symbols and language. According to Dillich (2016), They are based on the perceptions customers and members. Examples include brand equity, concepts, and designs. Although they have tangible forms and it is easier to grasp than experiential knowledge assets, it is hard to understand what members and other’s perceptions are.
Systemic knowledge assets - are another type of explicit knowledge which is systemized and arranged. They include clearly stated technologies, product specifications, manuals, and documentations. Contrary to experiential knowledge assets, systemic knowledge assets are the most tangible ones and thus they can be transferred relatively easily (James, 2012).
According to Carles (2014), Knowledge assets represent the fount of an organization’s competences and capabilities that are deemed essential for its growth, competitive advantage and human development. Knowledge management comes in many different forms. One great example of an effective—yet simple—practice comes from Geisinger Medical Group. After developing checklists for doctors to use when conducting surgeries, the cost of surgery declined $2,000 per patient, and patients experienced fewer complications after surgery.
But simple checklists just won’t cut it for the breadth and depth of knowledge that exists in most organizations. Robust solutions for knowledge management include:
Mentoring, shadowing, and other training programs allow employees to gain business knowledge by watching others work. For example, new employees at Toyota shadow experienced employees for months, and new factories are initially staffed by experienced workers from existing factories as well as new hires (James, 2012).
According to Carles (2014), Document management systems like Google Drive and Box allow organizations to store company documents on the cloud, share them, and control access permissions at a granular level. Typically, these tools have systems for tagging files and adding metadata that make information easier to find.
According to Dillich (2016), Content management systems like SharePoint and Bloom fire allow teams and individuals to publish, update, and access information on a company intranet.
According to Ghaziri,Hassan. (2014) Private social networking tools like Workplace by Facebook and Slack allow teams to communicate and collaborate in a shared space. But these tools also double as knowledge management systems because they store all historical conversations, allowing employees to search for previously-discussed information.
We believe chatbots represent the natural evolution of knowledge management. Chatbots like Spoke use AI and machine learning to respond to employee questions and requests for information. Using chatbots, employees don’t have to wonder who to ask or where to go for information they need. They don’t have to go digging around in a CMS, document system, or chat history. They can use pose natural-language questions (“How do I add a new baby to my insurance?”) and the chatbot will surface the best information from its knowledge base, regardless of where that info lives in the organization (Raymond, 2011).
According to Carles (2014), There is a lot of knowledge in an organization, some of it easy to codify (capture), and much (most) of it difficult to do so. Understanding how best to commit resources for knowledge-sharing should be in some kind of a decision-making framework that is easy for anyone to understand. This is a first attempt to do that.
Brian Gongol made an interesting observation on three categories of institutional memory. Decision memories are probably the most important, and likely the most open to rationalization in hindsight. The good decisions always seem obvious after the fact.
event memories, which are things like the construction of new facilities or the arrival of new employees process memories, which note how things are done in order to save time and ensure their reliable repetition in the future
decision memories, which explain how the institution chose one path or policy or course of action over another
These three categories can be expanded with Ewen La Borgne’s observation on the types of artifacts left by work projects. Outputs are quite explicit, while expertise is mostly implicit knowledge. Networks can be mapped, and are therefore explicit, but interpreting them requires implicit knowledge.
Put all of these together in order of difficulty in codifying memories/artifacts and the following graphic is the working interpretation. Explicit knowledge is easier to codify and more suitable for enterprise-wide initiatives, while implicit knowledge requires personal interpretation and engagement to make sense of it. these six categories only serve as examples and are not a complete spectrum of knowledge representations.
Patti explained the differences between Big KM, Little KM and Personal KM and this distinction could be useful. Big KM is good for knowledge that can be easily codified, and Little KM can provide a structure for teams & groups to try out new things (in a Probe-Sense-Respond way). PKM puts individuals in control of their sense-making, but the organization can benefit from this by making it easier for workers to share knowledge.
Finally, there are certain types of tools and and platforms that would be more suitable for sharing of each type of knowledge artifact. I describe only a few in this image, but it gives an idea of how one could structure a full spectrum of knowledge-sharing in order to support institutional memory (Bontis, 2011).
Knowledge is the most important factor of production, next to labor, land and capital. It is about managing and sharing knowledge for the development of an organization. In the competitive business world, knowledge management (KM) has become more essential for the sustainable development of organizations. In the 21st century knowledge and KM become the most professional element in many fields of knowledge, such as, education, cognitive science, health, sociology, management science, information science, computer science, information and technology, economics, philosophy, psychology, knowledge engineering, artificial intelligence and all branches of business. Through the application of successful KM, organizations can improve their effectiveness and can gain competitive advantage. KM helps in the decision-making process for the benefit of a company. It leads to higher efficiency in terms of less duplication of work, followed by notably better performance, enhancing new staffs’ capabilities and better quality decisions. The paper discusses the relationship between data, information and knowledge and the relationship between individual knowledge and organizational knowledge.
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