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HI5019 STRATEGIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS T3 2017

Executive Summary
The objective of this study has been aligned with the assessment of the information systems within both the private and public organisations. For this purpose, this study has emphasised on comparing and contrasting the issues and challenges associated with the strategic information implementation processes. In addition to it, this study also has evaluated the competitive advantages achieved from the information systems implementations. Furthermore, this study also has shed light on the approaches considered for adopting the innovative utilisations of the information system. With the prior considerations of the innovation strategies, this study also has elaborated critical views on the end-user computing and strategic information system evaluation. Eventually, it has critically discussed the effectiveness of the internal control systems along with their complexities and contemporary values in terms of innovative information system implementation processes.
Introduction
Strategic information system refers to a process that allows the organisations from both the private and public sectors to enhance their technological aspirations and add values to their business processes. In most of the cases, it allows them to achieve business successes form the competitive markets by meeting the contemporary and competitive market requirements. For this purpose this study has tried to compare and contrast the challenges existed within the implementation process of the information system. Furthermore, this study also has shed light on evaluating the competitive advantages of the information system that allows the business to achieve successes from markets. It also has considered a business area along with an organisation form the same sector, on the basis which it has assessed the strategic options associated with the implementation process. Evaluating the strategic systems and discussing the internal control system of the information system strategy have enriched the study to recommend needful actions to ensure the most competent processes.
Comparing and contrasting challenges and issues faced by strategic information systems planner
Strategic information system within an organisation usually indicates at enabling objectified approaches towards the organisational developments. The planning of strategic information systems refers at enhancing the process of technological implementations through ensuring the developments of computing and considerations. In the words of Laudon and Laudon (2016), the planning of strategic information also enables the managements of the organisations to identify the most effective applications and maintenance processes in terms of acknowledging the technological requirements of the organisation. For this purpose, the managements of the organisations belong to both private and public sectors use to emphasis on the development requirements of the organisations in terms of technology and computing. In addition to it, the implementation process of information system is also liable to enhance the organisational approaches towards the strategic benefits in the competitive markets. With the prior implementation of information system, the managements of the organisations use to focus on more critical roles that shape up the organisational outlook towards the competitive markets. Additionally, the implication processes of proper information systems use to help the organisations in adding business values or enhance public sector performances, which are often followed by the prior considerations of business expansion strategies. Thus, with the help of the strategic information system implementation processes, the managements of the organisations use to become capable of ensuring their international business marketing strategies as well as ensuring sustainable growth within diverse consumer market structures.
Strategic information system planning uses to shed light on the possible strategic advantages of an organisation within a competitive market or multiple markets simultaneously with the prior considerations of technological requirements and objectives of the organisations. This process indicates at encouraging the managements of the organisations along with the government sector organisations to ensure their computing and there technological aspirations according to their market requirements. In the words of Erich et al. (2014), the managements of both the private and public sector organisations use to focus on ensuring the strategic information systems within their workplaces for the purpose of determining customer satisfactions and liability towards the organisations, with which they are found capable of acknowledging the sustainable growth within the competitive markets. However, there are certain issues and challenges within the process of strategic information system planning that potentially influence the business growth of the managements of the organisations.
Strategic information system plans are usually found aligned with numbers of well-documented communication processes followed by basic assumptions of business growth. Thus, the managements of the organisations are always required to emphasise on both these tools for the purpose of ensuring the most effective information systems planning. Considering both these components are also liable to help the managements of the organisations to address and meet the issues and challenges existed within the organisational strategies. As stated by Peppard and Ward (2016), the strategic information systems planner always require to focus on the core activities associated with the organisational system alignment followed by the objectified technological strategies in regards with the business objectives. However, these two purposes are often found associated with certain complexities and diversities in relation with the implications of strategic process. The strategic information systems planners are always required to acknowledge these business complexities and government sector diversities for the purpose of empowering the fundamental assumptions to be undertaken. Lack of awareness about the organisational activities has always been witnessed as major issue in this context, as the information systems planner can never be capable of addressing the technological requirements or aspirations towards market without acknowledging all these components. Fallacy in acknowledging the global trends by proper customer feedback considerations is another major challenge that requires emphasised attention from the end of the strategic information systems planner. In comparison with the workplace practices and efforts, outsourcing for technological planning implementation mostly in the government sector organisations can be extensively challenging for the managements of the organisations since most of the outsourced workers lack organisational information. In addition to it, they also lack in considering the organisational objectives or aspirations categorically.
Critical evaluation on the competitive advantages of information systems strategy within Mark Warner
Acknowledging competitive advantages have become extensively necessary for the managements of the organisations for the purpose of enhancing workforce abilities of the organisations within a competitive market. In most of the cases, the managements of the organisations used to emphasis on the development and implementation process of the information system strategies for the purpose of ensuring sustainable growth of the company within diverse market trends. With the prior persuasion of the information system strategies, the managements of the organisations use to encourage their organisational aspirations and values in terms of expanding business in diverse market structures. In addition to it, the managements of the organisations use to shed light on addressing certain competitive requirements of the organisations in terms of enabling efforts towards employee retention and customer satisfaction. In the words of Whittington (2014), the managements of the organisations are always liable to categorise the competitive components of the markets that are solely aligned with the customer aspirations, trends and demands from a particular organisation. Assessing the outcomes of the industrial approaches towards the information system strategies along with the efforts of the other companies are also found effective for the management of an organisation in developing sustainability within competitive markets.
As per the competitive advantages of information system strategies are concerned, the managements of the organisations use to emphasise on extensively since they are capable of providing them distinguished advantages within the competitive markets structures. In the words of Zhou et al. (2014), the competitive advantages of information system strategies can be accessed through Porter’s Generic Strategy followed by Porter’s Competitive Force Model. Bothe these models are liable to analyse the outcomes of information system strategy implementation in diverse organisations considering their market values and organisational objectives. In addition to it, these two models are also found capable of addressing the most competent components of the organisations that are liable to allow them to achieve the most efficient competitive advantages from the markets.
As per the Porter’s Generic Strategy in regards with the organisational information system is concerned, it is usually divided into two major axes, such as competitive advantage and competitive scope. In the most common cases, both these axes are extensively dependent to each other considering the parameters of cost and target. In most of the cases related with information system implementation, the lower cost of the leadership strategy is aligned with broader targets. On the other hand, the decreasing target structure aims at cost focus to the organisation in terms of information system implementation. According to Edwin et al. (2016), differentiation in cost uses to be aligned with broader target, whereas narrower target is mostly aligned with differentiation focus. As per the implication of this model, the managements of the organisations are required to regulate their differentiation focuses on the information system strategy with prior consideration of target requirements. For example, a management with broader technological requirements is required to enhance on their cost leadership and differentiation. On the contrary, the management with lower target aspirations are required to emphasis on cost focus and differentiation focus in terms of information system strategy for the organisation.
 
On the other hand, the managements of the organisations are also required to acknowledge the Porter’s Five Force model as well for the purpose of achieving positive outcomes from the strategic information system planning. In this regard, the managements of the organisations are liable to address five major components that are aligned with the porter’s five force model. The most efficient competitive forces in this context include traditional competitors, new market entrants, substitute products and services, customers, and suppliers. Traditional competitors aligned with the implementation of the information systems strategy include the current industrial situations and the most common considerations of the companies within the same sector in terms of the information systems requirements. On the other hand, the new market entrants here indicate at the newly launched companies within the same sector of business that have acknowledged innovative business propositions. In the words of Li and Liu (2014), new market entrants often start their businesses with certain market penetration strategies with the prior considerations of current advantages. In most of the cases, the substitutes of the ongoing services of an organisation along with their products influence the competitive forces of the organisations. In this regard, the managements of the organisations are required to enhance their production strategies and service orientations by adding values to them. For this purpose, they are required to enable the most effective information system implementation strategies in accordance with the consumer trends and market requirements observed in present times. Acknowledging the needs of the customers and following the trends of the customers in terms of information system advancement are extensively recommended to the managements of the organisations for the purpose of encouraging successful information systems strategies. Eventually, they are required to enhance suppliers system in accordance with the information systems requirements of the organisations Gunasekaran et al. (2017). In this context, the managements of the organisations are required to emphasise on their supplier strategies and align them with the information system for the purpose of empowering the sustainability requirements of the company.
 
Implementing strategic information systems are always required to be ensured with the prior considerations of certain components that are based on the technological requirements of the organisations. However, certain organisational aspirations along with team development goals are also found associated with this implementation strategy. Most of the managements of the organisations use to focus on either the top-down approaches or the bottom-up approaches for the purpose of leading the information system developments towards the most competent effectiveness. In this context of strategic information system planning, the managements of the organisations are required to emphasis on certain major components that include the business services, service teams, service strategies, service approaches, service analysis, gap analysis, information technology integration, service level agreement, implementation, and strategic maintenance and development. Addressing all these components categorically and following them in accordance with the organisational aspirations for information system are liable to allow the managements of the organisations in adopting implementation strategy for information system.
Understanding the business service is always required to be prioritised by the managements of the organisations for the purpose of enabling information system strategies and their implementations. However, they are required to emphasis on their organisational structure efficiently in order to initiate the process effectively. In addition to it, they are also required to develop an information technology team, that are competent enough to acknowledge the organisational requirements keeping the business demands of both the internal and external stakeholders in mind. In the words of Ismail and Yee-Yen (2015), the information technology service team is liable to analyse the business requirements along with the prior objectives aligned with them. Henceforth, the managements of the organisations are also required to prioritise the service strategies considering the most efficient methods to pursue the change implications. In this context, they are required to develop organisational business mapping in order to outline the required changes and organisational requirements categorically. This is liable to be associated with the service systems of the organisations that indicate at the possible persuasion of the managements of the organisations in terms of their business situations and sustainability growth in the competitive markets. Describing the exact service propositions with the prior considerations of business needs and technological aspirations are liable to allow the managements of the organisations to ensure the successive applications of the information system strategies.
 
Figure 3: Framework for organisational approaches while developing innovative uses of strategic information systems
(Source: self-developed)
Analysing the current information technology service is another major adoption that the managements of the organisations require for the purpose of prioritising the implementations of information systems within their organisations. Furthermore, the managements of the organisations are required to focus on the gap analysis. In this context, the service team along with the managerial bodies of the managements of the organisations require to compare the current information technology infrastructure with the required propositions identified by the service team. This process is liable to help the organisation in directing the process of information system to the proper way. This process is required to be followed by the information business technology integration, where the managements of the organisations are required to emphasise on the processes from the obtained knowledge and aspirations in regards with the implementation strategy of information system. According to Ram et al. (2014), the managements of the organisations are also required to enable Service Level Agreement or SLA as well for the purpose gaining needful information in sufficient manner. In addition to it, prioritising this process also helps the service teams to understand the effectiveness of the services and generate details to the other team members to follow. Eventually, they intend to implement the adopted considerations of information system with the prior engagement of information system considerations.
Critically discussing the process how the director of information systems in Mark Warner would manage the ERP
Enterprise Resource Planning or ERP refers to the most contemporary software solution that ensures high-end benefits for the organisations. Thus, it has been found as one of the effective most software solutions in relevance with the organisational needs of information system development. As stated by Galliers and Leidner (2014), ERP technology is liable to help different sectors of businesses in developing their information technology requirements and aspirations keeping their organisational benefits and desires in mind. However, this software solution is extensively useful for the organisations that require extensive amounts of data to be stored or access them with encrypted confidentiality through end-user computing. Henceforth, it is potentially useful for the organisations that are associated with the businesses of travelling.
The information system director of Mark Warner has already taken the process of information system under consideration, for which ERP system has been prioritised. In this context, the management of the Mark Warner has also acknowledged this consideration and managed the implication process of it with the prior intervention of information system development requirements. As per the process of implementation is concerned, the information system director of the Mark Warner is required consider certain steps that include coordination, ongoing improvement, training and support, and security and updates. With the help of coordination, the information system director of the Mark Warner is supposed to combine the organisational requirements into a single application, with which the members of the teams can access and obtain the required data or information easily. In the words of Kwak et al. (2018), the information system director of the Mark Warner is also required to emphasis on the ongoing improvement, as their functional areas of hospitality are mostly encouraged with diverse contemporary needs of the global travels. Thus, they are required be specific in this component and focus on the obtained information in regards with the consumer trends for the purpose of continuing with the improvement strategies. In addition to it, the information system director of the Mark Warner is also required on training and supports for the purpose of allowing all the members of the hotels to ensure the most efficient and convenient services for the guests with the help of the ERP software solutions. Besides, they are also required to be trained about the application uses and ensuring proper supports for the guests by using them conveniently. Eventually, the information system director of the Mark Warner is required to emphasise on the security and updates, as this process helps the managements of the organisations to ensure the confidentiality of the data and information of the guests visit there. This system is also capable of allowing the Market Warner to protect their data through encrypted technologies.
Evaluating effectiveness of strategic information systems in adding business value to an organisation through information systems
Strategic information systems can be aligned with massive advantages if planned properly, as they are potential in adding value to the organisational approaches. The implementation processes of the strategic information systems are mostly dependent on the efforts of the managed service considerations. In the words of Leonidou et al. (2015), the effectiveness of the strategic information system is mostly dependent on the acknowledgment of business environments by the managements of the organisations. In this context, there are certain components that ensure the effectiveness of the implementation processes of the strategic information strategies. Managing business accounts followed by maintaining the employee records are the major positive outcomes in this context, which can be followed by the prior influences of diverse internal and external factors. In addition to it, this consideration also reduces the business expenses and allows more participants to access needful information and data for prior usages. Allowing the businesses to assess financial mergers and operational information followed by combining all the records together are considerably the other major benefits of the information systems implementation processes. Effective implementation of this strategy is also liable to allow the managements of the organisations to assume market trends and decide the most effective course of actions accordingly. As per the case of Mark Warner, the effective outcomes of information systems implementation is dependent on the guest services followed by the most successful promotional benefits from their services offered to their clients around the world.
Critically discussing constitutes of ‘good’ internal control in contemporary and complex business world
The internal controls can be procured by Mark Werner in order to generate sustainable assurance for the accomplishment of the organisational objectives through making appropriate use of the ERP by maintaining legal compliance. The complex business world requires internal control system for the organisations to safeguard the internal operations from excessive risks that can cause damage to the market reputation for employee integrity (Jantan et al. 2005). The Mark Werner ought to develop an internal control system for the ERP to manage the risks profoundly to procure ease in accomplishing the business objectives. The good internal control system can be helpful for Mark Werner as this can consist of the integrity and ethical values of control environment along with risk assessment. Apart from that, the internal control systems consists of control activities, information communication along with monitoring that procures an effective internal controlling system. This can be helpful for collaborating with the policies of the organisation to achieve the goals. The internal control with ERP system can also help in effective and efficient operations for Mark Werner. The internal control can be helpful to create an environment for the managers and employees of the organisation to enhance the effectiveness of the travel operations and efficient operational management. Mark Werner needs to create a team for planning the internal control whereas the management also needs to procure an approach of building block in order to divide the work into workable pieces (Bishop, 2011). The management also needs to build the internal control by refining and refocusing on the existing operations as the mapping of the controlling principles can be helpful to procure the system.  Management ought to pay attention on the focus point to get sheer insight for implementing the control system. The external financial reporting compendium ought to be used for crafting the internal controlling framework. The document procures framework to evaluate the effectiveness of the internal control system of enterprise resource planning for Mark Werner. The management needs to focus on the role of ERP system and strategic information system for incorporating the recent developments of cloud computing and social media. The added value needs to be identified for procuring effective internal control system to safeguard from the risks to proceed with relentless management (Neter et al. 2011). The internal control system can be procured through the help of ERP mechanism to use the resources positively for the organisational excellence accomplishes the objectives by avoiding the risks.
Conclusion
This assignment has dealt with the Mark Werner Company and the ERP system as the chosen strategic option. This assignment has discussed the issues and challenges faced by the planners of strategic information of Mark Werner whereas it has also elucidated the role of IS strategy to help an organisation to obtain sustainable competitive advantage in the market. The process of Mark Werner to adopt innovation is also depicted here that can be helpful to enhance the operational quality of the IS. This assignment procured sheer analysis of the impact of strategic information on the business value of Mark Werner along with the aspect of good internal control system for ERP and the process of developing it to gain efficiency to achieve the goals.
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