Before consider the term green revolution in India it is more important to understand the overall economical development process since 1947. All know India suffered from a low financial growth in agriculture area. In 1980 it improve and later it is experienced that the government is more concern about the rapid growth of financial structure of country. It is clearly shown in figure that agriculture area was decelerated in 20th century because the government is more focus on reforming of institutions. After that as socialist country it promoted heavily target on industrialization and the farmer get relatively neglected. As result India face a serious food related problem. This serious issue force Indian government to change agricultural policy and thus technological evolution started with introducing of technologies from foreign.
The Green Revolution in India states about the period when agriculture system of the country transform from traditional approach to industrial by adopting modern equipments and technologies like use of HYV seeds, pesticides, tractors. The Green revolution commenced in early start of 1960 which is based on increasing in production of food grains.
In context of India it is started in early of 1960 and after successful implementation of green revolution India becomes self dependent by end of 1970.
Implementing of green revolution in India was not an easy task for government of India, because the serious financial and political problem faced in 1960 because of previous policies for the farmer of India. The government first has to make the country self dependent so they first focused on Institutional reformation and after Industrialization. The regular ignorance and policies for farming India had face a serious problem of food and the country start face famines frequently. The history of British Rule and their policies for India make a serious problem for the country after getting independence in 1947. So with the lack of proper green revolution techniques, lack of financial support and also lack of self sufficient India face social challenges and as well as environmental challenge. The farmers of the country face difficulties to get finance and credit because of poor economical rate of government and existing banks. The farmer took loan from money lenders, land lords who charges very high rate of interest. Proper finance support to farmer was not given during the period of green revolution that makes serious impedance on farmer of India and enforces the country to suffer with the problem of famine. There is no enough technique for farming and less number of expert’s existence create a problem for the country. In 1960, the people of India didn’t know about the revolutionary effect of green revolution and wasn’t active socially to support the government. Due to traditional agriculture process the productivity of farming was relatively low and the population of country increases rapidly. The government often imports food grain because of thought of increased production and huge stock India could able to becomes self sufficient. The people didn’t literate enough and didn’t active socially result that they start criticize green revolution because of costing of HYV seed and technologies. Many of the farmer face problem because of expensive technologies and start criticize for the green revolution.
In Context of Environment, due to less literacy rate the farmer starts use of fertilizer and pesticides inappropriately killed the insects and wild life who is beneficiary for the field. People didn’t know about management of ground water and because of irregular uses level of water get decreased.
This paper is based on Green Revolution in India including challenges and scope. The objective of this paper is to address the historical part of the Green Revolution in India including detailed overview of diversities found in getting stability and successful implementation. The detail analysis of challenges and scope of Green Revolution consider social, environmental and economical aspects faced in implementation.
In India, The need of implementation of Green Revolution had been arise because of high shortage of food and regular famine. After independence the government of India wanted to make the country self dependent in food grain production and such effort required high level machinery, high level yielding seeds and fertilizers. After second wave in 1980 it is recorded that the production gets decreased as comparison to first wave. There are several scholars are in favor of Green revolution but the some also has oppose. The scholars opposes on the basis of ecological effects and on use of GYF seeds and fertilizers that affect on fertilization power of land. They also criticize this on the basis of social economical structure and cost of machinery that is required. The first wave of green revolution was implemented in northern states of India and especially in Punjab. The second wave boost the growth rate and reach to the other regions of country and producing grains including rice. The second wave of green revolution introduce a new kind of problem like many of the farmer get benefitted but a large number of farmer face issues because less productivity in agriculture and less use of modern techniques. The green revolution require higher investment and many of the farmer didn’t able to purchase, which result that the maximum number of farmer faced great problem.
The first wave of green revolution was implemented in northern states of India and especially in Punjab. The second wave boost the growth rate and reach to the other regions of country and producing grains including rice. The farmers of the country face difficulties to get finance and credit because of poor economical rate of government and existing banks. The farmer took loan from money lenders, land lords who charges very high rate of interest. Proper finance support to farmer was not given during the period of green revolution. Due to traditional agriculture process the productivity of farming was relatively low and the population of country increases rapidly. So the improper management and awareness program about family management creates problem of unconditional growth rate of population and due to less support of government farmer of the country wasn’t stable financially. Less understanding about use of latest technology, high Yield Seeds and fertilizers also raise problem for the farmer.
There are several scholars are in favor of Green revolution but the some also has oppose. The scholars opposes on the basis of ecological effects and on use of GYF seeds and fertilizers that affect on fertilization power of land. They also criticize this on the basis of social economical structure and cost of machinery that is required. They mostly argue about the modern method of agriculture because use of higher level pesticides and fertilizers has negative impact on fertilizing power of land and has negative impact on health. The food and grain which had been produced using such kind of material has toxic effect which impacts on environment and decrease the quality based nutrients from the soil. Higher cost of food production less returns from agriculture impacted on socio-economic status of people who involve in farming. The green revolution also raise problem of soil fertility, soil erosion, toxicity of fertilizing soil, toxicity of water, pollution level increment in underground water and etc. The scholar opposes on the basis of all these negative side of green revolution.
After independence the government of India wanted to make the country self dependent in food grain production and such effort required high level machinery, high level yielding seeds and fertilizers. The farmers of the country face difficulties to get finance and credit because of poor economical rate of government and existing banks. The farmer took loan from money lenders, land lords who charges very high rate of interest. The government of India hadn’t provided support to purchase the latest machinery due to insufficient fund and improper bank policies. Nearly third quarter of people in India was dependent on income from rural area and majority poor people are higher in this area and all the food security depend over producing of crops and others like fruit and vegetable. All these stuff is a major issue in implementation on Green revolution in India from its starting age.
Green Revolution is a well versed technique in agricultural development history of India. Green revolution high level revolutionary activities saved India from regular famine and starvation. After independence the country face of problem that is food scarcity. The government policy for farming was very poor because after independence they focused on industrialization. Thus India starts facing problem of food scarcity. After introducing green revolution, government of India wasn’t able to provide enough credit to the farmer which enforced them to take loan from money lenders. So after first wave of green revolution, the production rate get decreased which enforce the government to take action for management of machinery and required material for farming. There are many scholars existed who opposed the green revolution because of its toxic impact on environment and on social life of people. Apart all of this the income gap between the farmers increased means some get benefitted and some of them not. The green revolution mainly touched production of wheat and rice but the major commercial crops like sugarcane, cotton and etc is still untouched. The rate of production of pulse is also very low which is not good for fastest growing India. There are numerous types of studies over green revolution had been done and found that it can increase production rate but also impact on health of people. The new technology required enough investment which can only be afforded by the bigger farmer and hence the big farmer get benefit of it means it was not for every farmer.
(Your Article Library, 2019)
To increase the overall productivity of agriculture government of India invited the team of experts to crease a report on food crisis and possible steps to resolve the food crisis problem. This report suggested improving the production of country by using fertilizers, management of enough credit and enough marketing facilities. As a result implementation of green revolution in India resolve issue of food crisis and heavily increase the production of crops like rice, maize, wheat and etc. Green revolution improves the traditional approach of farming by implementing new kind of steps. Instead of using seeds, the farmer of India starts uses HYV seeds. It also changes the pattern of cropping like the first production increased the ratio of grains and decrease the pulse and second cereals increase the ratio of pulse and decreases the grains. This revolution also impact on industrial development of country. There are several organization start production machinery, fertilizers and pesticides to fulfill demand of farmers.
The social opportunity for green revolution is it encourages the farmer attitude toward use of new agriculture strategy. It increased the overall productivity and make them self dependent. It also creates new type of job for youngster because green revolution required latest technology and machine, fertilizers and pesticide that enforce for industrialization means creation of new kind of job. It also makes changes in thought of farmers in using land for farming. Now a farmer can produce many grains in few areas as comparison to traditional approach. Green revolution brought opportunities for growth of industries because of rapid demands of tractors, harvesters and etc. As per a scholar green revolution generate million of new job because the farmers who works in other states earn more in farming and learn about new technology.
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