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Evidence Based Practice

Evidence Based Practice

Evidence Based Practice | Evidence Based Nursing Assignment Help Online


The principal objective of any health care organization is to work for the wellbeing of the communities in which they are operating, through the improvement of health conditions. Health is referred to as a means of living an active and productive life with the absence of any disease or illness (Wholey, Hatry, & Newcomer, 2010). However, it is not merely the nonexistence of health related issues; but in fact, it is a wide-ranging and comprehensive state of physical, physiological and social wellbeing (Institute of Medicine, 2012).  A number of ways are devised by public health practitioners to achieve this goal effectually.

One such strategy of these organizations for the attainment of this purpose is the development of health related benefit programs and activities by thoroughly assessing health needs of the particular community that would facilitate them in improving their health and curing them from the identified health problem or problems. Development of such community benefit programs and activities require analyzing the different facets of the community critically and then after identifying the health needs, implementing the strategies accordingly by prioritizing those needs. The following figure depicts this framework of developing a community health benefit program.

 Evidence Based Practice

 Figure 1: community benefit framework (Fielding, Teutsch & Breslow, 2010)

However, to develop such programs for a community, the first thing that needs to be done according to the evidence based public health principles is the conductance of community health needs assessment. Evidence based public health, in simple words can be defined as a systematic process of coalition of the interventions that are based on science and the community preferences with the underlying aim of the prevention of health issues identified in the community and augmenting their health. Cullen & Adams defined it as a premeditated application of the contemporary best available evidence not only prudently but also unequivocally and conscientiously, so as to make the decisions about the prevention of diseases, healthcare service provision, health safeguarding and enhancement in a community and population (2010).   

Evidence Based Practice2

It is employed for effectively developing, implementing and evaluating public health related policies and programs. This is done by using the principles of scientific reasoning, which involves the successful exploitation of behavioural sciences theory and program planning models, and the methodical use of data and information tools (Cook, Smith & Tankersley, 2012).  An important framework, comprising seven phases is presented by brownson et al, for a better incorporation of evidences in public health decision making (2007, p.43). This model is named as evidence based public health framework which starts with CA. The next phase is the quantification of the issues identified. The following figure illustrates all of the different stages of this framework and it will be used in this particular report as a guiding contrivance.



 Evidence Based Practice3





Figure 2:  Evidence Based Public Health model (Brownson et al., 2011).


Stage 1: Community assessment

In order to understand the concept of community assessment, the term community has to be made clear first. According to Bilton, community is a faction of individuals, forming an informal structured social entity, inhabiting in the same specific locality, having the same interests and values, and sharing a sense of identity (2011, pp.21-22). WHO describes community as a group of people occupying a definite geographical area identified by the acquisition of their personal and social individualism, sharing common needs, making unified endeavours to fulfil those needs and also having the common beliefs, norms and values which are shaped and modified by their interactions (2012).

Community assessment, therefore, is the assimilation, arrangement, appraisal and dissemination of information on the specific needs of that particular community (Sara, 2013). The data collected in this process can either be accumulated through quantitative or qualitative methods and usually relates to the quality of life, assets possessed by the community, mortality and morbidity rates, factors having the potential to affect the community negatively and how capable the public health systems are in the provision of the required services effectively and efficiently. It also integrates the information about the social features of the community, any prevailing health inequality and forces of change. The information collected in this step is shared with other concerned participants to work collaboratively for the riddance of any problem and constructing a healthier community.

 It is further divided into two main categories which are community health needs assessment and evaluation of their resources. Community health needs assessment, as its name signifies is the process of determining the health state of the people comprising that particular community in which the CHNA is performed, spotting out the major risk factors and reasons of any health concerns and issues, if any and identifying the interventions or actions required to tackle those issues (Spring, Neville, and Russell, 2012, p.129). It is continuous practice that is revised and modified over time. It is a means to devise the public healthcare plans and programs by using the information gathered through it. It is cyclic modus operandi utilized for planning, implementing and evaluating the health services and is reiterated again and again for acquiring the updated data reflecting the needs of the individuals. This CHNA data assists in prioritizing the health issues making important decisions accordingly for recuperating health. Resource assessment on the other hand is the consideration of the resources owned by community (Bartholomew et al., 2011).

The community that I have chosen for the sake of this task is Southwark borough, which is a 9th most densely populated borough of England. It has 10,632 persons per sq.km as compared to 5,510 of London as shown in the figure below. It is situated on the south bank of the river Thames and forms part of the inner London.  

Evidence Based Practice


 Figure 3: population density Map of Southwark (Office of National Statistics, 2014)

Socio demographic features of Southwark

Southwark is a home to around 306,745 310,000, according to the sources. This   is equally divided into male and female residents of the borough. The division of this    into different age groups is as follows, along with the comparison of population demographics of London and England.




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