Please read and study the lecture below and then do the homework by answering the study questions located at the end of the lecture. The homework will count as your attendance and also help you prepare for the mid-term and later, the final exam. You have three days AFTER the day the class meets for you to do your homework and submit it. You will submit your homework in the classroom in Moodle during week two in the folder labeled “Chapter Two Homework Submission”.
For your homework, do you your OWN work, the homework is NOT a group project, and Turnitin.com will check your homework for cheating. Cheating will be reported to the Dean, Dr. Faisal.
1. What are domestic and international threats
2. Why all counties face choices when it comes to homeland security.
3. Why governments prioritize threats to homeland security.
4. What determines priorities when it comes to homeland security.
5. Ethics, homeland security, and war: The Just War Theory.
6. What are War Crimes and Genocide.
As we saw in chapter one, homeland security is about protecting the homeland or country against threats. These threats can be domestic (arising or coming within the country) or international (from outside the country). International threats are often more difficult to deal with precisely because they are international, that is, they occur or come from another country (or multiple countries), and to fight them requires cooperation between countries. So, for example, the attacks of September 11, 2001 against the United States of America, which killed 3,000 Americans, was committed by al Qaeda which was then based in Afghanistan. In 1996, Osama Bin Laden, the leader of al Qaeda, and Ayman Zawahiri, the deputy leader of al Qaeda, moved from Sudan to Afghanistan. Invited and given protection by the Taliban government of Afghanistan, al Qaeda organized, recruited, and trained terrorists. Indeed, al Qaeda had training camps in Afghanistan and had thousands of members in Afghanistan. The attacks of September 11, 2001 were plotted and organized in Afghanistan. Until 2001, al Qaeda had not attacked the United States domestically, meaning within the country. It took the death of 3,000 Americans to provoke the United States to invade Afghanistan in October, 2011 to overthrow the Taliban government and deny al Qaeda sanctuary in Afghanistan. Below are some photos of al Qaeda in Afghanistan between 1996-2001.
As we just explained, international threats are often more difficult to deal with precisely because they are international, that is, they occur or come from another country, and in the case of terrorists and transnational organized crime (TOC—also known as the mafia), these groups operate in many different countries. For example, DAESH has a presence in many nations, including: Iraq, Syria, Yemen, Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, the Philippines,1 Turkey, Azerbaijan, Mozambique, Somalia, and in central and western Africa such as Nigeria, Niger, Chad, Cameron, Burkina Faso, and Mali. Al Qaeda is active in Syria, Yemen, Somalia, Pakistan, and central and western Africa. Certainly, DAESH but possibly also Al Qaeda have cells (groups of terrorists) in Europe and America. DEASH is believed to have as many as 10,000 fighters in Iraq and Syria, and thousands in Africa. As DEASH lost its self-proclaimed caliphate in Iraq and Syria by 2017, thousands of its fighters have fled to Africa.
The internet also makes terrorists and TOC groups more difficult to fight because they use the internet to communicate, organize, plot attacks and crimes, recruit, and even fundraise. DAESH in particular has been very effective in using the internet to recruit fighters, gain publicity, promote terror by, for example, posting the videos of executions of its victims, whether captured Iraqi or Syrian soldiers, Kurdish fighters, beheading journalists, and burning alive a captured Jordanian pilot shot down over Syria. Below, a map of the presence of DAESH and al Qaeda in Africa. Please note that in America and Europe, DAESH is called the Islamic State (IS).
On August 24, 2020, DAESH killed 18 and wounded 75 people in a series of bomb attacks,
Because threats to homeland security are numerous and can (and do) change regularly, this makes defending against them a challenge. Also, no matter how rich or wealthy a country is, there is no such thing as unlimited resources, whether we are talking about money, personnel (people), or time. It is because threats to Homeland Security are numerous and change regularly, and resources are not unlimited but instead are limited or finite, all countries face choices when it comes to homeland security. For this reason, countries prioritize threats. Right now, the COVID-19 pandemic is a homeland security priority for all countries; it is probably the most important and immediate threat to all countries. This does not mean that, for example, terrorism, cyber threats, and crime are not threats and are being ignored by countries, but right now, because the immediate threat is the COVID-19 pandemic, most attention, resources, personnel, and time is devoted to the pandemic than to other threats. But with so much attention on the COVID-19 pandemic, there is always the possibility that other threats might be ignored or missed so no government can ignore other threats such as terrorism, crime, and cyber attacks. Indeed, evidence suggests DAESH has used the COVID-19 pandemic; for one thing, attacks in Iraq and Syria by DAESH have increased, and also attacks in Africa by DAESH and al Qaeda.
Governments need resources for homeland security and yet resources are limited. When we speak of resources, we are speaking of money, personnel, equipment, and time. In terms of money, governments must first decide how much to spend money on homeland security. For example, how much money should be spent fighting terrorism, crime, cyber threats, and pandemics are decisions all governments must make. No country has unlimited personnel or manpower. Even with a large population (tens of millions or hundreds of millions of people), decisions still have to be made about how to allocate or use your personnel, and remember all these people (soldiers, police, intelligence agents, pilots) need to be trained, which can take years. Also, not everyone in the government can be focused only on terrorism or crime, otherwise other threats get ignored.
As far as equipment, governments must decide not only how much money to spend on weapons but also what type of weapon systems (e.g., firearms, fighter jets, helicopters, navy ships or boats, tanks, drones, satellites) and also vehicles (fire trucks, ambulances), and to use this equipment (and repair it) requires training which can take years. Also, remember not all weapon systems are effective against all threats, for example, with cyber threats, military weapons are probably useless while to fight terrorism. Since terrorists usually operate in small groups and hide among civilians, fighter jets, helicopters, and tanks are of limited use in fighting terrorists; rather, intelligence, investigation and surveillance are more important to fighting terrorists.
The last resource is time. Time is finite, there is only twenty-four hours in a day and humans are not robots who can work for days without rest and sleep. Time management is an important skill in homeland security, as in life.
So, because of limited resources and because threats change over time, Governments have to prioritize threats, deciding which threats are more dangerous than others. Events often determine or dictate which threats are prioritized, called threat perception. Events often force governments to change priorities to confront a new threat. For example, the Houthi takeover of much of Yemen in late 2014 and early 2015, including the capital Sanaa, forced not just neighboring Saudi Arabia but all the Arab Gulf States to confront a new threat. The fact that Iran supports and has reportedly provided weapons to the Houthis understandably alarmed the Arab Gulf States. In response to the Houthi offensive in Yemen, Saudi Arabia and eight other Arab states (including the UAE) launched an air campaign whose goal was to defeat the Houthis, end Iranian influence in Yemen, and restore to power Yemini President Abdrabbuh Hadi. The bombing campaign in Yemen was assisted by the United States, the United Kingdom, and France with intelligence and logistics (namely refueling of fighter planes in the air). In addition to an air campaign, in August 2015, coalition troops, including from Saudi Arabia and the UAE, landed in
https://news.yahoo.com/isis-using-covid-distraction-rearm-071505718.html; https://www.voanews.com/middle-east/us-backed-forces-crack-down-resurgent-islamic-state the port city of Aden and over the next few months drove the Hou this out of much of southern Yemen. A total of up to 10,000 UAE troops were deployed to Yemen at one point.
Below: UAE troops deployed
Another example of how threats can dictate priorities of homeland security are the attacks of September 11, 2001. After the attacks of September 11, 2001, the priority for the United States (and many other nations) was terrorism; terrorism became the primary threat to the United State and has continued with the rise of DAESH. The United Kingdom, France, and Germany in particular have been victims of terrorist attacks by DAESH.
Right now, the COVID-19 pandemic is the probably the most important threat to homeland security, but terrorism, crime, and cyber attacks also remain threats, and terrorists and criminals may try to use or take advantage of the pandemic to not only attack, but also expand their influence, recruit new members or fighters, and in the case of terrorists gain publicity. Al Qaeda and DAESH have used the pandemic for publicity and propaganda, claiming, for example, the Coronavirus pandemic is punishment from God, and also praising the economic effects (namely loss of jobs and closed businesses) and also the number of deaths in America and Europe from the disease.3 Al Qaeda has also blamed America and Europe for the disease, claiming it is “punishment” from God. DAESH has called on its followers and fighters to increase their attacks during the pandemic, and Iraq and Syria have seen an increase in terrorist attacks since the COVID-19 pandemic began, and on March 24, 2020, a DAESH supporter in America planning to attack a hospital with COVID-19 patients was killed in a shootout by police. Meanwhile al Qaeda has apparently also been trying to take advantage of the chaos caused by the pandemic by expanding its influence in Africa. On August 2, 2020, the Leadership reported that:
…the US Africa Command (US AFRICOM) warned that the Al-Qaeda terrorist group…were exploiting the COVID-19 pandemic to progressively take over the West African Region after losing ground in Syria, Iraq, and the Middle East. Commander of the US Special Operations Command, Africa, General Dagvin Anderson, who stated this during a digital press briefing, noted that the terror group was already deploying several strategies to silently re-establish themselves in the region and expand further in the entire continent without drawing attention. Of late, there had been a surge in attacks in [the] North West states [of Nigeria], including Zamfara, Kaduna and Katsina, prompting Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari to acknowledge in a rare interview last Friday that the scale of insecurity in the zone and its neighboring North East zone were becoming “very, very disturbing”. During the media briefing, General Anderson noted that America will continue to partner with Nigeria in sharing intelligence. “We have engaged with Nigeria and continue to engage with them in intelligence sharing and in understanding what these violent extremists are doing. And that has been absolutely critical to their engagements up in Borno state [province] and into an emerging area of northwest Nigeria that we’re seeing al-Qaida starting to make some inroads in. “So, this intelligence sharing is absolutely vital and we stay fully engaged with the government of Nigeria to provide them an understanding of what these terrorists are doing, what Boko Haram is doing, what ISIS-West Africa is doing, and how ISIS and al-Qaida are looking to expand further south into the littoral areas.” General Anderson announced that Al Qaeda has already expanded in Mali, and have moved into northern Burkina Faso, where they attacked infrastructure, took out local governance and security forces, and are now controlling the local economy and exerting their control over the population.”
Homeland security involves the possibility of using force or violence by the government (military and police, and also possibly intelligence services) to defend a nation against threats and enemies. The use of force, especially by the military, during war and also during homeland security
operations raises the question of when is it ethical or right to use force that may injure and even kill people, and also damage or destroy property (homes, buildings) but also infrastructure (such as roads, highways, airports, ports, power plants)? One of the most important theories about the law of war and warfare (fighting) is called The Just War Theory, developed by Hugo Grotius (1583-1645) a Dutch philosopher, lawyer, and diplomat, in his book On the Law of War and Peace (1625). Grotius’ Just War Theory is the basis for international law (rules or laws that countries agree to follow) and inspired the Hague Convention of 1899 and 1907, and the Geneva Conventions of 1864, 1906, 1929, and 1949. The Hague and Geneva Conventions are the basis for the laws of war and warfare, what governments can and cannot do during war.
Hugo Grotius lived in Europe during a time of war, specifically the Eighty Years Wars (1568 and 1648) and the Thirty Year’s War (1618-1648). The Eighty Year’s War (also known as the Dutch War of Independence) was a war between Spain and its colony, the Netherlands or Holland, that killed hundreds of thousands of people. In 1648, the Netherlands won their independence from Spain and became an independent country. In Islam, you have Sunni and Shi’a. Among Christians, you have Catholics and Protestants. Although Spain and the Netherlands were both Christians countries, Spain was Catholic and the Netherlands was Protestant, and this created hostility between Spain and its colony in the Netherlands. Spain tried to impose Catholicism on the Protestant Dutch in Netherlands. Also, the Dutch began to resent or be opposed to Spanish rule and wanted freedom. In 1618, the Dutch revolted against Spanish rule, leading to eighty years of war. Below a map of the Netherlands.
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