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 1.1 Analysing the important issue and the various applications of database within the organisational environment


DBMS: DBMS or the database management system considers being the accumulation of numerous programs and that provides the opportunity towards the several users and in order to store, edit and collect information or raw data. According to Wei and Yu (2014, p.16), the user always gets the opportunity to access the data or information, whenever the necessity seems high.

The database management system or DBMS comprises of five key components. The essential components of the DBMS consist of software, hardware, data, methods and the users.




The integrity or the data integrity defined as the accuracy, consistency and maintenance of the numerous data that stored and saved utilising the database management tool. The numerous data collected and stored in the database management system ensures the proper maintenance and making the information or data easily accessible. The key components of the integrity consist of consistency and correctness. According to Wei and Yu (2014, p.16), the data integrity or the integrity deals with the accuracy factor of the information or data and the degree of consistency of the numerous data

There consist of four different integrity entities:

Domain Rule

The domain rule associates with providing legal advices in context to setting up or creating a specific domain.

       Rational Rule

       The rational rule comprises of providing governing regulation and rules for each single relations.

       Database Rule

        The database rules associates with the catering of specific rules and that related with the monitoring of relations and interrelationship.



       Attribute Rule

       The attribute rule refers to providing values regarding attributes in a legal form.


The database management system or the DBMS consists of unique security systems and that ensures the proper safety and proper maintenance of the informations or data. The database security systems comprises of the data encryption, where the various informations or data gets protected by a security layer known as Cipher. The security measures also comprises of data backup system, which saves a copy of raw information or data in another location. The security measure also comprises of security layers and that prevents unauthorised data transmission (databasecompare.com, 2017).



The recovery system comprises of restoring the system directly in correct stages and always checks the errors and protects the system. The recovery system also assists in the revision of files. The database can easily recovered on redundancy within the physical level.


     The data redundancy comprises of various usefulness such as, the data must not get copied, ensuring less allocation of space, the irregularity in context to data must get minimised. The data redundancy manages and controls the replication of data.


The database integrity considers being the most important ingredient of the entire database management system. As per Labrinidis et al. (2014, p.86), the various issues generated during the process or designing of the physical structure of the whole database design. The issues can summarise as;

       The method or format of choosing numerous information or data and furthermore selecting the storage procedure of the archived data need proper emphasise.

       The grouping attributes of the data or information retrieved from the logical data structure or model and converting them into physical records.

       The process of arranging identical structured informations or data and storing those informations or data in the secondary memory. This particular collection of data can easily saved, extract whenever required and easily updatable.

       The selection of structures needs to specify and in order to make the process of connecting various identical and non-identical files and making the process of retrieving the data in a more efficient manner.

       The preparation of the strategies for combating queries for the various issues regarding the components of database, need more optimisation. This ensures highest quality of performances regarding database management systems.


Three DBMS or database management system products

The three database management system products generally handled and controlled by the three giant players of the information technology industry. The three major tools include Oracle, Microsoft SQL server and the IBM DB2. The tool also popularly known as RDBMS, also consider to be a part of the entire database management system and also a part of the three big database management system. The technology seems to be the best and used for the production systems, regarding the database management system.

The utilisation of the products i.e. Oracle, Microsoft SQL server and IBM DB2 by information technology organisations depends on the size of the particular organisation. The best tool that seems essential comprises of the IBM DB2. The DBMS can operate using the Linux partition. IBM considers being the market leader in this specific section. As per Camisón and Villar-López (2014, p.2891), the installations regarding the Linux and UNIX comprises of the Oracle and the IBM DB2. The Oracle considers the market leader in this particular section and the IBM. In case of windows development, Microsoft considers as the leader in the information and technology market. These three leading database management system product consider the most efficient in terms of performance, support, functionality and user friendly. 


The Oracle considers the most efficient leader in the entire business systems of the information technology. The current version of the database system comprises of the Oracle Database 12c. The oracle also supports various operating systems for the DBMS to operate. It includes numerous versions of the Windows and Linux and Unix operating systems also.


The biggest competitor of oracle consists of IBM DB2 and in context to Linux and UNIX operating systems. The DB2 also available in the Windows operating system and I-series midrange servers the latest versions of the IBM DB2 consists of DB2 versions 11, in context to UNIX, Windows and Linux. The popularity and demand for skilled and equipped DB2 developer’s remains very high compared to the oracle and the Microsoft SQL server. The DB2 SQL considers being identical between the LUW platforms and z/OS. The development of data and DBMS tools both available for DB2 and gettable from IBM and from ISVs also known as independent software vendors

Microsoft SQL server:

The present version of the Microsoft SQL server consists of the SQL server of 2016. The microsoft sql server easily operates on the windows operating systems and also in Linux. The sql server comprises of several tools that support data development, database administration and data movement. The sql server license also contains various analytical tools and services, integration services and various upgradable options. The most important feature added to the latest version of the sql server tool contains extra database capabilities and integration on -premises with the cloud server. According to Groom and Allen (2014, p.662), the sql server tool also comprises of strong encryption abilities, addition of Hadoop and utilising the polybasic feature and modified in-database analytics. The Azure, a Microsoft cloud integration tool and associated with the sql server seems to be most simplified tool associated with the sql server. The Azure consists of the ability to generate a set up for the azure virtual machine systems.

Q 1.Discuss in brief for the various terms

Data; database; Database management system; application programme and Data independence



The data comprises of various informations that utilises by the users and concerned with several entities related to database management systems.


Database considers being the accumulation of specific data and that provides detailed information needed by the users and by a specific organisation, in context to the designing of database.

Database Management system:

Database management system or DBMS associated with  software or a tool and that assist the users in creating, defining and maintaining several kinds of information or data regarding a specific organised system.

Application program:

Application program associated with a specific computer program and that creates the opportunity to interact with the database system.

Data independence:

The data independence refers to the accessible option towards the users and operates them. The data independence also relates with the file structures that seems non-identical from the programs and that operates on the file structures.

Virtual table:

The section regarded with the virtual table never appears or exist in the entire data base but virtual table always creates by the database management system itself. The user can easily access all the necessary and useful information or data from the base tables. The users also possess the ability, to customise or edit the existing tables and the pre-inputted data or information. The virtual table also comes with a layer of security systems and that protects loss of data or information.


Q 2. Explain the five components of database management system and highlight the relation between them



The hardware system refers to the parts of the computer and that assist in the operations of the entire computer system. The database management system associated with the computer hardware system enables the dbms system to run using the hardware systems.  


The software system considers the most essential component of the entire database management system and the system software assist the operational system of the dbms. The database further comprises of Meta data and operational data and that assist in the functioning of the whole database management system.


Data considers being the key element of the entire database management system and connects the software component and the hardware component. The important tools within the database management system comprise of both the operational and Meta data and that interlinked with the dbms.


The term procedures include the rules and instructions essentially needed in the process of designing of structure and utilisation of the database. Procedures also ensure the designing of backup sections regarding the storing of data in the database system and diagnosing software and hardware malfunctioning regarding database design.


People include the various users and the techies such as, database administrators, designers and the application programmers, regarding database management system.

Q 3 : What is meant by DBMS? What are the various advantages and disadvantages of the database management system?


The database management or the DBMS tool says as the accumulation of programs and that provides opportunity to the users in generating and maintaining a database for a particular subject. The dbms also refers to a tool or software, that assist in generating, defining and manipulating various data or information regarding a specific subject.

The database structure consists of numerous data types and the specific constraints of the data, stored within the database. The process consists of analysing the data and storing the required data or information in the selected database. The manipulating of the information or data inside a database comprises of analysing the data and creating necessary elements from the specific data. The database further provides multiple users, regarding the access of data within the database. The database also saves and maintains the valuable data for a long span of time.

Several Advantages of DBMS:


       The same data never get stored in multiple locations i.e. data redundancy easily avoided, in context to database management system.

       The dbms entitled with the reputation of maintaining proper database and consistent performance.

       The security system within the dbms seems highly appreciable. It has layered security systems for every user.

       DBMS offers the client or the users for easily access to data or information stored in it.

       Database management system provides easy options to the users, in context to data recovery.

       The entire system is flexible


       Functions of the database management system:

       Database management system serves the purpose of a huge storage management regarding numerous data or information.

       It also acts as a dictionary that contains ample amount of meaningful data or information.

       The database management system associated with data presentation and data storage in a specific order.

       It also provides the access and monitoring of data by several user in a specified time.

       Database management system aids with recovery system of data or backup system of various data.

       It also comprises of a transaction management system.

       DBMS supports the users with specific system that includes data integrity.

       It also performs the database communication system. 

2.1 Analysing the development in the methodology of database system 

What do you meant by Methodology related to database design? What are the various phases in design methodology?

The designing of database includes various procedures and methods that involve several methodologies in the designing process of the entire database system or database tool. The design methodology involves the utilisation of proper techniques and tools. It also includes a structural approach of utilising essential documentation, which supports the designing process. The design methodology also comprises of various phases and that includes several steps and instructions that provide a designer in creating the necessary designs, in context to database design. The several phases of the design methodology comprise of; logical database design, conceptual database design and physical database design.

Conceptual design of database:

The conceptual design of database includes the generation and creation of a data model that always remain independent of the conceptual designing of database and the target database management systems. The designing program comprises of application programming, hardware platform and performance level.

Logical designing of database:

The designing process of the logical section of the dbms comprises of a specific model, where unique data model structuring process maintained by the designer. The logical designing of the database system always converts the conceptual model into the logical model. The source of information for the physical design comprises of the logical data model.

Physical designing of database:

The physical designing of database includes the secondary storage method of data or informations in the database management system. The physical designing of the database involves various sections such as, organising of files, base relations and ease of access by the users regarding data. In improving the rate of performance feedback system also implanted in the physical designing of database that associates between the logical and physical section. 

Steps involving in physical database design methodology 

Step 1: The first step includes the translation of logical data for the target dbms. The method also includes designing of base relation and designing of data or constraints.



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