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## A.C.1.1 critically compare different data models

The logical structure of the database used to determine how data is accessed or stored along with constraints and relationship is known as data model. Following are some of the major data models with their features, strengths and weaknesses:

Hierarchical data model: The hierarchical information figure organizes records in a tree structure. There is a hierarchy regarding father or mother and baby data parts. This structure suggests up to expectation a report perform the bear iterating information, typically within the child information parts. It has main benefits to create the hierarchy of data and provides more effective understanding with their origin and usability (Coronel and Morris, 2016). However, it is now rarely used due to increased complexity and inefficiency in modern data modelling.

Figure 1: hierarchical data model

Relational Model: Uncertain a database the facts or members of the family of them are prepared into tables. The table is a series about archives then every record of a desk incorporates the equal arenas. The most common model, the relational model varieties statistics into tables, additionally recognised as much relations, each of who consists on the field however record. Each unproductively lists an attribute of the entity between question, such so cost, code, and then beginning date. Collected, the qualities into a rapport are known as a domain. A specific quality or combination over attributes is choice so an essential answer up to expectation execute stay referred according to among ignoble tables, then it’s known as a foreign key (Batra and Tyagi, 2012). Goods about the R-database: Morals have atomic, every Record is unique, column, standards are concerning the similar kind, the order about the field is unimportant, the order over the record is Unimportant and every field has a unique identifier.

Figure 2: Sample rational model

Object-Oriented Model: This model defines a database as like a collection regarding objects, yet refillable software elements, with related applications or methods. There are a number of kinds regarding oops databases: A hypermedia database comprises television, such namely pictures, to that amount could no longer remain saved among a relational database. A hypertext database allows somebody target to hyperlink in accordance with anybody despicable entity (Alagic, 2012). It is useful for organizing plenty regarding improper data; however, it is now not ideal because of arithmetical analysis. The oops database model is the best-recognized post relational database prototype, because such contains tables, but is not restricted in conformity with tables. Such models are also known namely hybrid models.

Figure 3: Sample object oriented data model

Schema

It can be defined as the skeleton which can be used to represent the database in a logical view. It can be achieved in the following manner:

Internal: It is the logical view of the database with all required tables, integrity and view constraint. It presents the logical structure in which data can be used for storage and access.

External: It shows actual implementation of the database design as according to logical view. It presents files and indices to use in database for effective data management in routine operations (Cleve et al., 2015).

Conceptual: It presents conceptual view from the users on logical and physical view. The schema has important to develop the understanding among the users for the database utilization and functionality.

## A.C.1.2 critically discuss the benefits and limitations of different database technologies

The technology for the database can be classified into two forms: design and implementation technology. These are two major designing technologies or approaches:

Top down:  Top-down format starts by identifying the information units then since describes the statistics factors for each of those sets. This technique involves the proof of identity regarding unique nature sorts then the assignment regarding each entity’s characteristics (Buede and Miller, 2016). It has benefits to manage the work with high efficiency whereas the goals and objectives are clear to achieve. However, it needs strong planning to achieve the quality and desired outcomes.

Bottom-up diagram preceding detects the facts factors or since agencies to them together between information sets. In sordid words, that advance describes qualities, yet afterwards businesses to them to shape objects.

The determination about a predominant power regarding “top-down” then “bottom-up” strategies of relies upon about the opportunity concerning the problem then of private favourites. Although the joining practices are corresponding as a substitute than jointly limited, an important accent on a bottom-up method may also be extra originate because little databases including temperate objects, characteristics, relationships, yet dealings (Jindal and Taneja, 2012) For situations in which the quantity, diversity, then difficulty on objects, relations, and dealings is crushing, and in particular top-down method may additionally stay more without problems achieved.

According to implementation, database technologies can be classified into the following forms along with their benefits and limitations:

File-based: data can be managed in the form of files whereas each file can use textual as well as table formats to store and manage the data. It is effective to store different types of data and manage modularity for high performance during access. However, it has main concern that it cannot manage the data duplicity, accuracy and reliability (Coronel and Morris, 2016). Also, update and upgrade is complex.

Relational database: It is a tabular structure in which attributes and rows are used to manage data. It has main benefits that it is easy to use and access the data, flexible to easily link or extract data and has high precision as usage of calculus and algebra helps to reduce ambiguity. Also, it has security controls and authorization on tables with high data independency for update. It also has use of data manipulation language to make use of queries for data organization (Buede and Miller, 2016). However, it has limitations for performance, data storage consumption and slow extraction of meaning from data.

Multimedia database: It has main concept to use multiple types of data into the database. It has benefits to store images and video files into database whereas overall performance and security is high. However, there is need of the additional configurations and attributes those can help to identify the multimedia data. Also, it has high storage and lower performance in extraction.

Object-oriented database:Instead to store and access data as tables, the technology has use of the objects to represents the data. It has benefits of enrich modelling capabilities, extensibility, removal of impedance mismatch, handle variety of data types, support for schema evolution, expressive query language and applicability to advanced database applications. However, it also lacks universal data modelling, experience, and standards. It also has limitations due to complexity and lack of support for security and view (Ishikawa, 2012).

Distributed database: there are several database systems those are interrelated to each other to present entire and single logical database. Here, data is stored on multiple sites and distributed database system is used to manage the access and storage among the sites to improve performance and security. It has benefits to achieve modular development, more reliable structure, better response time and lower communication cost (Kim et al, 2012). It also improves security of the data through distributed storage and processing. However, it also has high complexity, and processing overload.

Data warehousing: Data boring is the process about analysing information beyond specific perspectives yet brief that within useful statistics - data as do remain ancient in imitation of increase revenue, cuts costs, or both. It approves users excite information out of dense exclusive dimensions or angles, range it, then cut short the relations recognized. A data warehouse supports that purpose through supplying a structure then tools in imitation of methodically arrange yet understand facts beside a couple of databases (Abai et al., 2013). However, it has limitations such as high cost for installation and management and technical skills required for performance and security.

## A.C.1.3 Analyse different approaches to database design

There are mainly two types of the database design approaches for the organization those can be considered as per the demand and requirement:

Top-down approach: Data hierarchy can be used as possible flow of the work whereas goals and objectives are integrated as a new system or solution. It has benefits to work on a new system with proper understanding with requirements and capabilities. It is also useful to deliver quality system to the organization with proper consideration of the limitations and scope. To design the system in top-down approach, the organization can use entity-relationship model.

The model is used to define the relationship among the entities to ensure effective data management. Entity can be defined as a real world object whereas attributes are the properties of the entities. For example, person is an entity whereas Name is an attribute with entity. Entity is represented through a rectangle whereas attributes are represented in an oval shape. A week entity is an entity which only can be defined with the combination of foreign key and represented within double bordered rectangle (Coronel and Morris, 2016). Derived attributed are powered from other attribute. For example, age can be determined from date of birth. Diamond shapes are used to represent actions or relationship among entities.

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