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Data Structure and Algorithm

Data Structure and Algorithm



In this technological world data and its information are important, several ways are being adapted to store it in different ways. Data are set of values that are collected in a particular format, it collection of facts and figures. Data item is known as a single set of values, which are further categories into sub-items and group. (ZHANG et al., 2010) The purpose of creating data structure and algorithms prior to writing codes and preparing Software is to optimize memory used and time utilized to process the code. This improves the overall experience of the end user, as there could be multiple people using the system at the same time. This is done by understanding the Time Complexity and Space Complexity

Data Structure:

Data Structure is a defined way to store and arrange the data in computer’s memory to manage the data efficiently. The particularly arrangement of data, using different logical or mathematical model is called as Data Structure. (Nathasya, Karnalim and Ayub, 2019) They are categorized in two types, Linear Data Structure containing Arrays, queues, stacks, Linked Lists and Non-Linear Data Structure containing Graphs, family of trees, table of contents.


Algorithm is known as the set of instructions or logic written in an order to accomplish certain pre-decided tasks its type of logic or solution to a problem. This is shown as an informal level of description using flowchart or as pseudo code. (Luisa Arenas Franco and Iniguez Diaz, 1995)

 Library Management System:

The purpose of Library management system for the students of Kent Institute is to provide them the accessibility to various books, journals, newsletters, magazines, articles. The main aim is divide each of the section with respective contents from each author.

It’s also important to provide access to the data available in both the centers of institute situated in Melbourne and Sydney. The number of users (students) predicted to use the system is approx 700 (300 are from VET level and 400 are students pursuing higher education) Apart from this approx 20 professionals and 40 members from academic staff are expected to use it for preparing their lecture and papers. This library will have more than 1200 journals, articles and e-books. It’s suggested that each subject will have a minimum of 60 books. 5 DVDs under each subject can be added for providing better learning with the help of audio and visual contents.

Task– 1

This system will provide on-premise support inside the campus, the automated system will help to keep the track and provide better accessibility. It’s hard to find the books physically, as there are 100s of books in a collection. This helps proper arrangement of books and saves time and manual efforts. (ZHANG et al., 2010)

Requirements for a better library database:

- Tabs: Using which the user can search required book, journal, article using multiple options such as  Book name, Author / co-author, subject, publication, edition and other keywords.

- Required drop down list will come from the preexisting database, if the mentioned edition is unavailable, it shall provide relevant results depending upon other keywords. Provide – Rack and section# where the physical copy of the searched item is kept. It shall also provide all the contents that available offline for download as well.

- It should allow the required user to hold on to the given edition if there are more than one copy of the book.

- The system should provide the details of the user who has issued the book currently, in-case of emergency; this will help them to share the book. (Nathasya, Karnalim and Ayub, 2019)

-Book issue: Limitations to the number of books being issued by a single user. The current let students to issue upto 05 books at once, the limit of staff members is upto 08 books.

- Book Return: Need to set the limit in number of days a person can hold on to a book, that is returning within the due date. That is calculated basis the Issue date + number of allowed days.  The current structure at kent charges $5 / day for a week. It shall make the penalty ot $8 in case delay exceeds for more than one week.

-Reminder: A reminder stating the return date should be sent to the book holder prior to at least 3 days of the due date.

- Personal Cart: If the books are currently not available in the library, the user shall be able to part it under his ID, and the system shall send a notification, once that book is again available in the library.

- The barcode on the Library ID cards and the books shall be visible and interfaced with the system, for auto-issuing and s/m maintenance


The main objects required to manage the system with object oriented approach are:

Member:  This object comprises of personal information about students and professionals of the Kent Institute involved with library. Attributes included under this object are: name, student/professional ID, residential address, class name, email address, contact details, campus name etc. It will fall in the category where they are allowed to borrow, issue, reserve or return the book. It is connected with book and multi-media object to perform the above-mentioned practices.

Item/Book: This object involves several components like books, articles, journals and DVDs that are stored in the database of the library. Attributes covered under this object are: item name, type, class, published date, revised copy, ISBN, subject, author/s name etc. Objects from this header are assigned by librarian to borrow, return, or renew the item if permitted. Check the penalty records and calculate penalties if exchange has passed the due date. (Luisa Arenas Franco and Iniguez Diaz, 1995)

Librarian: The person in charge of performing all the functions is given a portal from where all operations are covered. Attributes involved are user ID password, shift timings, email address etc. Availability of assigned item by member object is checked and confirmed by librarian object.

Administrator: The admin panel that works on backend forum of library management system falls under this object head. Attributes used are name, address, contact details, user ID, password etc. The main objective of this header is to add, update, remove, and manage books in the library and assign the same to the members of the library. (Araujo et al., 2010)

 For the Kent institute being at two different locations all the objects are introduced twice in the system and admin panel is synchronized to reduce overriding of data.

Task 2:

Operations performed by the library management system are:

Add member to system: The process of adding new members or renewing the tenure of existing members for membership of the library. For existing members, renewal of membership option will be seen and if member is new, its attributes are added and new record is formed. This is done by admin panel.

Update Status: Status for every transaction is mentioned through interlinks of objects and is updated in the system. After every action, system is updated.

Adding Item: It refers to Item object of the system. When a new book, journal, article, or DVD is introduced to the library, all the attributes are entered and new record is formed. If copies of existing item is added then only number of copies is updated keeping al other attributes same and duplicating the item on the system.

Issuing Item: On request of issuing an item the system will first check the availability of the requested item in database and then will check whether the user can issue the item or not. If the slot for issuing the number of items under particular member is saturated or the item is reserved by another member object then system will show error message and if not the issuing of item is forwarded.



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