Being green, being environmentally sound, seeking a sustainable lifestyle, embarking on eco-tourism holidays – those are just a few examples of the language of sustainable tourism. But what do they mean? How do we come to a definition of sustainable tourism? Sustainability is now one of the most common concepts used in tourism development discussions both academically and in travel and tourism industry (Weaver 2007). More and more travel agencies and tour operators are embracing travel projects which are sustainable and which have a positive impact in the communities travelled and visited. The analytical framework of sustainability is broad encompassing both economic, environmental and socio-cultural impacts (see Sharpley 2003). Sustainable development is now part of the agenda of both nations, travel organisations, airlines and also in the accommodation sector.
The aim of this unit is for learners to gain understanding of the rationale and different approaches to tourism planning and development, sustainable tourism, current issues and impacts of tourism.
This unit aims to increase learners’ awareness of the need to plan and manage tourism at all levels within an international, national, regional and local frameworks. Emphasis is placed on current trends in planning for tourism development in a range of destinations. The stages in the planning process are identified and learners will be encouraged to apply theoretical models to practical case studies and site visits.
The principles and philosophy of sustainable development are introduced in this unit and learners will be required to show an in-depth understanding of issues such as carrying capacities, environmental impact and the guest-host relationships as they relate to current tourism initiatives, e.g. access, conservation, enclave tourism.
On successful completion of this unit a learner will:
1.1 discuss how stakeholders can benefit from planning of tourism developments with reference to a current case study
1.2 discuss the advantages and disadvantages of public/private sector tourism planning partnerships drawing on a current example
2.1 analyse features of tourism development planning at different levels
2.2 evaluate the significance of interactive planning systems and processes in tourism developments
2.3 evaluate different methods available to measure tourist impact
3.1 justify the introduction of the concept of sustainability in tourism development
3.2 analyse factors that may prevent/hinder sustainable tourism development
3.3 analyse different stages in planning for sustainability
4.1 evaluate methods of resolving a conflict of interests to ensure the future wellbeing of a developing tourism destination
4.2 analyse the implications of balancing supply and demand
4.3 evaluate the moral and ethical issues of enclave tourism
5.1 compare current issues associated with tourism development in a developing country and an emerging destination where the impacts of tourism are different
5.2 evaluate, with recommendations, the future development of tourism in these destinations
Rationale: to achieve the determined objectives eg improved employment opportunities, protection and conservation of wildlife, landscape, co-ordination between public/private partners, to maximise benefits, provide infrastructure, co-ordinate development, consumer protection; involvement of stakeholders eg developers, tourism industry, tourists and host community; public/private partnerships and advantages/disadvantages of; effective use of resources eg infrastructure; natural, cultural, heritage, human resources.
Planning:environmental; economic; social; international; national; regional; local; strategic; short term; qualitative; quantitative; methods of measuring tourism impact eg Cambridge Economic Impact Model (STEAM), Environmental Impact Studies, Pro Poor Tourism; Responsible Tourism, interactive planning systems and processes Development: preservation, conservation, new build
Sustainable tourism:definitions e.g. Brundtland Report (1987), Triple Bottom Line, World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC), Principles for Sustainable Development (1995)
Principles: planning considerations, benefits to the environment, the host community, the tourism industry, the visitor; factors of supply of facilities and resource weighed against demand; proposed developments e.g. infrastructure required; interdependence e.g. of society, economy and the natural environment; citizenship e.g. rights and responsibilities, participation and cooperation; future generations; sustainable change e.g. development
Current issues:conflict e.g. tension between the planner, tour operator, tourist, government, developer, local community, guest-host relationship; impacts e.g. economic, social, environmental; access e.g. balance of supply and demand, imposition of limits, pressure on finite resources; enclave tourism e.g. advantages and disadvantages to the local community, moral and ethical issues of enclave tourism
Socio-cultural: social change, changing values, crime and gambling, moral behaviour, change in family structure and roles, tourist/host/relationships, provision of social services, commercialisation of culture and art, revitalisation of customs and art forms, destruction and preservation of heritage
Environmental: types of conservation and pollution e.g. air, visual, noise etc., land use, ecological disruption, pressures on infrastructure and finite resources, erosion, preservation of environment e.g. national parks, drainage, irrigation
Economic: generation of employment, provision of foreign exchange, multiplier effect of tourism as contribution to the balance of payments, economic leakage, development of the private sector, foreign ownership and management
Developing countries: countries eg India, Thailand, Jordan Emerging destinations: destinations for medical tourism eg India, Thailand, Hungary; other destinations eg Bulgaria, Qatar, Shanghai
• Cooper, C., Fletcher. J., Fyall, A., Gilbert, D. (2008) Tourism: Principles and Practice. London: Routledge. Hall, M. & A. Lew ( 1998) Sustainable Tourism : A Geographical Perspective. London: CAB
• Harris, R., Williams, P., Griffin, T. (2002) Sustainable Tourism: A Global Perspective. London: Routledge
• Page S.J. , & Connell, J (2006) Tourism: A Modern Synthesis, 2nd Edition Thomson Learning, London;
• Sharpley, R (2003) Tourism, Tourist and Society, Huntindon: ELM Publications
• Swarbrooke, J. (1999) Sustainable Tourism Management. Oxford: CABI Publishing.
• Weaver, D. (2007) Sustainable Tourism. London: Routledge. Journals and newspapers
• Annals of Tourism Research
• European Journal of Tourism Research
• Current Issues in Travel & Tourism
• Annals of American Geographers
• Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers
The module tutor(s) will aim to combine lectures with tutorial activities. This environment will provide opportunities for the student to understand the course material through case study and text and to apply it in a practical way. The intent is to facilitate interactive class activities and discussion about the significant role of research in a global and local business environment.
The College’s approach towards teaching and learning is simple and effective. The main aim of UKCBC is to assist learners in maximising their potential by ensuring that they are taught clearly and effectively. This will enable students to engage in the learning environment and promote success in both their academic studies and subsequent career.
These will be developed around the key concepts as mentioned in the indicative course content and will use a range of live examples and cases from business practice to demonstrate the application of theoretical concepts. This method is primarily used to identify and explain key aspects of the subject so that learners can utilise their private study time more effectively.
These are in addition to the lectures. The seminars are designed to give learners the opportunity to test their understanding of the material covered in the lectures and private study with the help of reference books. This methodology usually carries a set of questions identified in advance. Seminars are interactive sessions led by the learners. This method of study gives the learner an excellent opportunity to clarify any points of difficulty with the tutor and simultaneously develop their oral communication skills.
An important learning methodology is the extensive use of case studies. They enable learners to apply the concepts that they learn in their subjects. The learners have to study the case, analyse the facts presented and arrive at conclusions and recommendations. This assists in the assessment of the learner’s ability to apply to the real world the tools and techniques of analysis which they have learnt. The case study serves as a supplement to the theoretical knowledge imparted through the course work.
Any act of plagiarism will be seriously dealt with according to the colleges and awarding bodies’ regulations. In this context the definition and scope of plagiarism are presented below: Plagiarism is presenting someone’s work as your own. It includes copying information directly from the web or books without referencing the material; submitting joint coursework as an individual effort; copying another student’s coursework; stealing coursework from another student and submitting it as your own work. Suspected plagiarism will be investigated and if found to have occurred will be dealt with according to the college procedure. (For further details please refer to the plagiarism policy and the student code of conduct.)
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