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CO7601 CYBER CONCEPTS AND TECHNIQUES

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CO7601 CYBER CONCEPTS AND TECHNIQUES

 

Introduction

In this portfolio, we will discuss various aspects of computer security and we will analyze some cases where we can use cybersecurity to make the network more secure. Assessment 1 will be about Software security and its various aspects.

Assessment 2 will b about Information gathering and finding vulnerabilities. Assessment 3 will be about security and a practical application of log files.

Assessment 4 will be regarding a case study of a small company’s network. Assessment 5 will be acting as an attacker and finding ways to exploit the network from assessment 4.

Assessment 6 will be a safety measure and securing techniques for the system.

Exercise 1: Software Security

In the following code, there are various functions that help the software in a password matching process for the system. The programming language used in this exercise is C.

Code Explanation

This code contains three functions which are void proceed_with_credentials(void), void proceed_with_limits(void) and int main(void).

1.      int main(void)

·         This is the main function of the program. At first, we initialize two values one is buffer [15] of type char and the second one is rootPass=0 which is of the integer data type.

·         Then the print function is used to print the statement which is “Welcome, Please enter the password, or hit return”

·         Then there is scant function which allows the user to enter the value of the buffer variable

·         Next, are the conditional statements which help the program to perform password matching statements. Using strcmpfrom the string library we check the input entered by the user, to see if it matched the string “passw0rd”. if it does then it prints Access Granted then declare the value of rootPass=1. Then another set of conditional statements are executed to print the proceed_with_credentials or the proceed_with_limits function.

2.      void proceed_with_credentials(void)

This function has only one prints statement and if the password is right then it prints “Proceed With Credentials”

3.      void proceed_with_limits(void)

This function also has only one printf function which prints the statement “Proceed Without Privileges” when the password is right.

Software Vulnerabilities

1.      Brute force attack: Since the password used in the program is “passw0rd” which is very simple and linear so, it is very easy to apply a Brute force attack to exploit the system. Brute force attack is a cyber attack that uses the concept of permutation and combination to find the possible password combination. In a Brute force,the attack might have a pre-defined library or a user can define a library which can be used to generate potential possible passwords to crack the system.

Solution to brute force attack:

Using a very strong password which contains various values of various data types. Making the passwords complex make the odd for cracking it very hard. For example, using a 10-digit alphanumeric password can take almost a few days to crack and In the meantime, users can be alerted through various security protocols.           

2.      Password Authentication

It is a general fact that 90% of the user’s password is considered to be weak and vulnerable. In this program, the password is very weak. Any password exploiting library will contain this string which means within a few minutes this password can be cracked.

Solution to Password authentication problem:

Using two-step verification for password authentication can help the system to double the user’s authenticity.

3.      Missing password encryption

Not having password encryption can cause many problems to a system. Encrypting passwords provides layer protection to the passwords by encoding all the characters, integers and symbols to something encrypted which would be very hard for any hacker to crack.

Solution to Missing password encryption:

Using encryption is the obvious solution to this issue. Encryption means converting the password or credential to something different entirely so that no hacker or attacker can read or write it. Encryption is done by using a key or values which is required at the time of decryption.

4.      Buffer overflow

In computer science, a buffer flow is use to temporarilyhold the data, while the users perform read and write operations on it. Using various methods, exploiting the buffer overflow is a very popular cyber security exploited and it used by various hackers. 

Exercise 2: Information Gathering: Open Source Intelligence and Finding Vulnerabilities

Information Gathering is the first step in hacking any system. It is a pre-attack stage where the maximum amount of operations and efforts are applied so that no complexities will encounter during the attack. To keep the attack stealth and away from spotlights this step is very necessary. Footprinting is the first and most crucial step which has to be taken before starting any attack process. Good and effective information gathering can make a huge difference between a good attack and an effective attack which will make the most impact and yield maximum benefit (System logging. (2019)).

Open Source Intelligence

OSIT or Open Source Intelligence is the main component in the field of cybersecurity which dominates the internet. Open Source Intelligence is an information collecting tool, which gathers information from all over the internet or from the sources where the information is available for free.



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