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Business Research

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1.      Introduction

The research purposes to study the differences in gender education and its impact on the life time income earned by two genders. It is commonly agreed that there has been disparity in education level of the two genders; however, the relationship between the gender education and life time income of the genders is questionable as investigated in this question. The purpose of this research proposal is to form the background for the investigation of the research question. The proposal begins with the project objectives followed by the project scope, where the application of project alongside its importance are analysed. Later, the summarised literature review is also included and the methodology is discussed in an in-depth manner. Lastly, limitations of the research, research plan and conclusion of this proposal are also discussed at the end of document.

 

2.      Project Objective

The research purposes to study and analyse the differences in gender education and its impact on the life time income earned by two genders. The research objectives that are to be achieved by the course of research are as follows:

·         To study why the education is important in the modern era.

·         To analyse the variation in education between the two genders.

·         To evaluate the correlation between the education and earning potential

·         To analyse the relationship between gender education and life time income.

These are the specific research objective that the research purposes to achieve by the course of research.

3.      Project Scope

The project scope is based on numerous directions; firstly, the project scope can be defined in the light of its application. The project is focused at regulatory authorities and NGOs operating in education sector as it aims to provide them with the fact that earning of two genders is different due to education and it is causing numerous problems for the female population. Secondly, the project scope also covers its application in the view of academic literature as the research purposes to fill the two research gaps as discussed at the end of literature review. The project scope is not limited by the geography or to any particular demography but the research findings will be applicable to population as a whole.

4.      Literature Review

As prescribed by Quinn andRubb(2005), the education is among the basic rights of the individuals regardless of the social position, gender, age and ethnic origin. It is generally agreed that the education is important for numerous reasons including the fact that it increases the earning potential of the individuals. Michels et al. (2008) conducted a research to relate the income of salaried persons with respect to their education. On the basis of primary research conducted, it was found that there is a clear divergence in income with respect to education level of individuals. Further, it is clarified that the individuals who have attained higher education hold higher positions at offices and their salaries are also found higher accordingly. It is further concluded that the higher salaries are due to the technical and managerial skills carried by the educated people as compared to non-educated. It is the presence of skills that helps them earn more as compared to the education itself.

A research conducted by Marenya et al. (2003) on gender disparity across different countries concluded that the females are oppressed with reference to their education and it is not limited to the developing countries.  The literacy rate of females is lower in developed countries as well and it is mostly due to the social problems. It is further concluded that gender disparity is not limited to education but also includes numerous other factors such as their rights and duties. This is why the feminist movements have been expedited across the world in the modern era. These movements are aimed at bringing the women equal to the level of men in the societal perspective. It must be noted that gender disparity and variation in education based on the gender are highly likely to be declined.

The level of education and earning potential are often compared and correlated in the modern era but the literature suggests a debatable relationship between the two. As found from the discussion earlier, the relationship exists in the case of salaried individuals; however, it does not exist in the case of business persons. Therefore, this section discusses the correlation between the education and earning potential for salaries persons. Gregorio andLee(2002) conducted a thorough research to analyse the relationship between the education and earning potential and they found that a strong correlation exists between the two especially in the developed countries. The findings are justified by the statement that the education is irreplaceable and any other factor such as experience cannot overshadow the skills acquired by education.

In support to the findings discussed above, Dahl(1994) also conducted a research in multiple nations and found that on a common note, the people having higher educational qualification are earning more. It is further stated that there is a positive correlation between the education level and earning potential for salaries individuals. It is due to the fact that quality education helps the individuals acquire both the technical and soft skills that are useful for performing different jobs.

The definition of life time income is highly desired; the term in the context refers to the income of individuals over their life. The life time income is considered as a variable instead of simply income or monthly earning given the fact that the life time income incorporates the long-term impact of the education on the income (Reardon, 2013). In the view of Temple (2015), the differences in education on the basis of gender have caused sufficient changes in the life time income of those genders as well. Due to the lack of education, many females are not able to earn a penny throughout their life and others which struggle to acquire education earn lesser than the men due to their additional physical skills and continuous involvement in education and learning process. Berger and McLanahan (2015) conducted a research and came up with findings that support those of the research discussed above. It is found that the females have been able to earn lesser due to the absence of education for them in some countries. This has made the female dependent on their male counterparts and their rights have been oppressed in this manner. Therefore, the education must be provided to women in order to keep them at par with their counterparts.

The research gaps analysis based on the literature review is highly important knowing that it helps the readers and researchers understand the significance of the research. First research gap is that there has been very little research that has focused on both the salaried and business individuals while comparing the gender education with the income; most of the present research revolves around the salaried individuals. Second research gap is that the research proposed revolves around life time income against the earning potential or salary used by the majority of researchers. However, this research considers life time income in order to incorporate the long-term impact of gender education and its impact on life of different genders as a whole. The two research gaps highlighted suggest that there is a lot of importance of the proposed research in the academic arena. Another research gap that very few researchers have focused on studying the education differences and the salaries or life time incomes of two genders. There has been an indirect focus on the issue but this research will fulfil the gap by studying the relationship directly.

5.      Research Questions/Hypothesis

-Primary Question

The primary question that the proposed research aims to answer is as follows:

·         Whether the differences in gender education cause changes in lifetime income of the two genders?

- Secondary Questions

The secondary research questions to be answered by the proposed research are as follows:

·         Why the education is important in the modern era?

·         Why there is variation in education between the two genders?

·         How the education and earning potential for the two genders are correlated?

·         What is the relationship between gender education and life time income?

These are the secondary research questions that the research aims to answer.

6.      Research Design and Methodology

The section of methodology has been developed in order to identify the ways and the procedures that would be adopted in order to derive valid findings for this particular study.

Key steps

One of the key steps that would be undertaken is to ensure that the major problem of the research along with its overall objectives are taken into consideration in order to ensure that the elements of methodology are identified in accordance to the overall objectives of the research. The other key step that would be undertaken in this case is to identify the suitable population the responses of which would be effective and relevant in order to obtain relevant and authentic findings for the research. The purpose of undertaking these steps is to ensure that the process of research is being carried out effectively. The elements and the steps of the methodology that would be performed in this particular research have been provided below

Research Design

The research design that would be adopted is the explanatory research design. The rationale for the use of this research design can be explained from the analysis presented by Salkind (2010) which states that explanatory research design is generally used to identify cause and effect relationship between independent and the dependent variables. Since the current research is based on the evaluation of the impact of dependent variable on the independent variable; therefore, explanatory research design has been proposed to identify the impact of education on earning potential and capabilities of the individuals. The rationale behind explanatory research design is that the relationship has already been identified through previous researches and therefore, this research aims to explain or take the relationship further.

Research Strategy

In the view of LeCompte and Schensul (2010) there are different kinds of strategies that are adopted in a research such as survey strategy, ethnographic content analysis along with archival research strategy. The strategy that has been utilized in this particular research is the survey strategy. Survey strategy would be utilized through providing questionnaire to the target respondents in order to obtain their views regarding the importance of education with respect to earning potential along with obtaining their views regarding the differences concerned with gender education. Moreover, the data collected is cross-sectional in nature as it is collected from different groups at a single time and it will not be repeated as in the case of longitudinal data (Bryman, 2015).

Research Approach

The approach that would be utilized in this research is deductive approach. According to Bryman (2015), deductive approach is a kind of approach in which a particular theory is tested based on the use of relevant information. As the research in question is concerned with testing the relationship between educations and earning potential along with testing the association between the gender education and life time income of the individuals; therefore, deductive approach has been proposed. Another approach for researches is inductive approach, which aims to identify some new relationship by the course of research; it is not applicable in this research given the objectives of the research (Mertens, 2014).

Instrument of Research

According to Mertens (2014) instrument of research refers to the tool that is used to collect data from the respondents. The instrument that will be used in this research is questionnaire. The questionnaire would be distributed to the target respondents during the process of survey.

Data Analysis

Data would be analysed using statistical techniques such as regression and correlation to identify the association between the independent and the dependent variables. The statistical techniques would be applied using SPSS software. The tests to be utilised for the data analysis include the descriptive statistics, reliability analysis, correlation coefficient and regression analysis as these are considered as core tests to find the relationship between the two variables.

Sampling and Sample Size

The sampling technique that has been adopted for this research is non-probability sampling technique. From the category of non-probability sampling technique, convenience sampling technique has been considered as useful in this research. The rationale behind the use of convenience sampling technique is that includes those respondents that are willing to contribute and participate in a research. Therefore, it has been stated by Jackson (2015) that convenience sampling technique is a kind of sampling technique in which participants are obtained from wherever they are found. The participants or the respondents in this kind of research are obtained on the convenience of the researcher.

The sample size that has been derived is 50 individuals who have completed their higher studies. The rationale for including them as respondents in the research is concerned with the fact that they would be in a position to provide detailed and in-depth information regarding the impact that higher education has had on their overall learning potential and capabilities.

Design of the Questionnaire

The questionnaire developed for the purpose of data collection would be based on the use of five-point Likert Scale. The scale would include options varying from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The option at point 1 would be strongly agree; whereas, the option at point 5 would be strongly disagree. The questionnaire would include different statements regarding the variables that have been discussed in this research.

Reliability and Validity of Data

Obtaining reliability and validity of data would be important in order to authenticate and validate the overall findings of the study. The reliability of the data would be performed through the application of statistical technique of Cronbach alpha analysis. On the other hand, the validity of the instrument would be ensured through including the statements within the questionnaire that would be effective in exploring relevant and important information regarding the issue that has been discussed in this research.

7.      Research Limitations

Some of the limitations that have been identified for this particular research have been provided below

·         One of the key limitations is concerned with the time available with the researcher for the completion of this research. The researcher had limited time period during which he had to undertake in-depth analysis regarding all the elements of the study. Therefore, there is a possibility that some elements might have not been covered in detail throughout this study

·         The other limitation is that the research has only focused on the impact of education on the earning potential of the individuals. Therefore, it has ignored other elements that could have a significant impact on their earning capacity such as the overall skill level, entrepreneurship capabilities skills of networking etc.

·         The limitation related to this particular research also includes the fact that the analysis is concerned with the use of quantitative data. The involvement of qualitative data could have been useful in terms of identifying and obtaining in-depth findings and information regarding the issue that has been discussed in this particular research.

·         Fourth limitation pertains to the small sample size considered for this research as only 50 respondents are to be surveyed. It is widely argued that a larger sample size leads to more validity and reliability. However, a larger sample size is not practically possible considering the time and resource related limitations.

8.      Time Schedule (Research plan)

The research is based on five-chapter dissertation format and the researcher aims to complete it within the deadlines set below:

Chapter 1 – Introduction: The chapter introduces the research to target readers by inclusion of various aspects such as background, significance and rationale of the research. The time allocated for this chapter is 1 week.

Chapter 2 – Literature Review: The chapter conducts the in-depth literature review analysis by studying various books and researches available on the research title. The time allocated for this chapter is 3 weeks.

Chapter 3 – Research Methodology: Numerous methodological aspects are included in this chapter including research design, approach, data collection and analysis methods. The time allocated for this chapter is 2 weeks.

Chapter 4 – Data analysis: The chapter analyses the data collected through various sources in order to achieve the objectives of the research. The time allocated for this chapter is 3 weeks.

Chapter 5 – Conclusion and Recommendations: The chapter purposes to provide the conclusion of the dissertation and also provide recommendations and area for future studies. The time allocated for this chapter is 1 week.

The research plan above clearly suggests that the research needs to be completed in 10 weeks approximately as planned.

9.      Conclusion

The research purposes to study the differences in gender education and its impact on the life time income earned by two genders. Both the literature review and methodology are discussed in detail in this assignment. The discussion in the literature review highlights that there is a need to conduct a research which highlights the relationship between education and life time income in general while considering both the salaries and non-salaried individuals. It is also highlighted that the education is important for self-building besides the increase in earning potential of the individuals.The discussion on the methods suggests that the research is an exploratory research and survey technique is utilised to collect the data. The questionnaire will be designed on the basis of Likert scale of 5 options for each statement. The sample size that has been derived is 50 individuals who have completed their higher studies. Moreover, the research limitations suggest that small sample size is one of the limitations of the proposed research beside other methodological limitations. The time schedule suggests that the research needs to be completed within a course of 10 weeks ideally.

10.  Reference List

Berger, L. M. and McLanahan, S. S. (2015). Income, Relationship Quality, and Parenting: Associations With Child Development in Two‐Parent Families. Journal of Marriage and Family, 77(4), 996-1015.

Bryman, A. (2015). Social research methods. Oxford university press.

Dahl, E. (1994). Social inequalities in ill‐health: the significance of occupational status, education and income‐results from a Norwegian survey. Sociology of Health & Illness, 16(5), 644-667.

Gregorio, J. D. and Lee, J. W. (2002). Education and income inequality: new evidence from cross‐country data. Review of income and wealth, 48(3), 395-416.

Jackson, S. L. (2015). Research methods and statistics: A critical thinking approach. Cengage Learning.

LeCompte, M. D., and Schensul, J. J. (2010). Designing and conducting ethnographic research: An introduction (Vol. 1). Rowman Altamira.

Marenya, P. P.,Oluoch-Kosura, W., Place, F. and Barrett, C. B. (2003). Education, nonfarm income, and farm investment in land-scarce Western Kenya.

Mertens, D. M. (2014). Research and evaluation in education and psychology: Integrating diversity with quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. Sage publications.

Michels, K. B., Bloom, B. R., Riccardi, P., Rosner, B. A. and Willett, W. C. (2008). A study of the importance of education and cost incentives on individual food choices at the Harvard School of Public Health cafeteria. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 27(1), 6-11.

Quinn, M. A. andRubb, S. (2005). The importance of education-occupation matching in migration decisions. Demography, 42(1), 153-167.

Reardon, S. F. (2013). The widening income achievement gap. Educational Leadership, 70(8), 10-16.

Salkind, N. J. (Ed.). (2010). Encyclopedia of research design (Vol. 1). Sage.

Temple, N. (2015). The possible importance of income and education as covariates in cohort studies that investigate the relationship between diet and disease. F1000Research, 4.



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