1. References to chapters or page numbers within the assessments/ questions refer to the following textbook/s and other resources
1. Textbook: Cole, K., 2010, Management: Theory and Practice, 5th Ed, Pearson, Australia (Referred to as ‘Textbook’ in the Assessments) or 6th Ed published by Cengage
2. Study Guide: Manage organisational change, 2011, (Referred to as ‘Study Guide’ in the Assessments)
3. Reading: Fisher J M, (2005), A Time for change, Human Resource Development International vol 8:2 (2005), pp 257 – 264, Taylor & Francis
4. Supplementary Reading: Cummings, T.G and Worley, C.G., Organisational Development and Change, 6th Ed. ‘Chapter 2: The Nature of Planned Change’ and ‘Chapter 9: Designing Interventions’.
Organization behavior (OB) tends to be a systematic analysis of the ways an individual or group act within the entire team members. The core principles which are applied accurately attempt to make businesses to function more effectively in the future. In the simple term, it happen to be a study of human behavior in which the entire work environment can be determined along with the implication associated to the job structure, performance, motivation, and leadership. Both internal and external aspects of organization behavior could be examined by the company while evaluating the performance of the team. The primary objective of OB is to revitalize the organizational theory as well as the better conceptualization of business sustainability. It can see that the OB has huge impact by the overall growth in total number of allied disciplines that consists of psychology, economies, and sociology.
In an organization, it has been seen that the study of OB tend to provide a consistent insight on the behavior of employees along with the performance within the workplace. It could also develop better understanding of the key aspects that would help the firm to motivate the employees, increase its inner potential, and assist the firm to establish a positive relationship with its employees. Furthermore, it can help in an effective communication between the employees as well as motivate them towards the dedicated workforce strength and remove the obstacles that are aligning with the effective performance growth of the employees within an organization so that they can reach to its goal efficiently.
Organizational culture intend to be related to the underlying beliefs, assumptions, and ways of interacting that can contribute to the unique set of social as well as psychological environments of the business firm. It can ensure that the objective of its group which are align with the motive of an organization growth and success. This could be related to the compatibility of objective by thinking drives the group to perform remarkably well, and remain self-directed towards the organization vision. Generally, it can be formed by various factors such as founder values, industry demand, goals and shared belief that are effectively increase the strength of the business in the future period. It can create a strong bond between the well-functioning cultures that can assist with on-boarding aspects of the employees those are working within an organization with certain key objectives.
It has been examined that the organizational culture intends to define the proper way to attitude that are carried by the employees within an organization. The culture includes certain key shared beliefs as well as values that are established by the concern leaders as well as then shared by various approaches that can help the employees to shape its perception and understanding level. The business communication can enhance the relevance of culture knowledge and attitude that are carried by the employees in an organization. However, it can encompass by behavior and values that can contribute to a certain social aspects which are associated with the employees. There are various ways through which the progress of the reports could be communicate to the stakeholders.
Organization culture is being developed by various factors that consist of founder’s values, preference, industry situation, goals and assumptions. The culture is being maintained by drawing attention of the selected attrition, new staff on boarding and rewarding system that is offered within an organization to the employees. At the time an organization way of operating business tend to provide a valuable adaption to environmental issues and ensure growth to retain the values they required to adopt a new culture. An organization culture specifically operating during the early times, is inevitably align to the personality situation as well as the value of the owners that are carried with the motive to increase the profitability position of the firm. PART B: Lead and manage change
The internal forces of change occur from the inside of the organization that are related to the overall operation of the organization. It might reduce the team performance, low level of satisfaction, conflict, and new leadership. External forces include the customer, competition; the political and social changes that are align to the external sources of the firm.
Give four reasons In the current business situation, an individual resist changes within the organization because of various reasons. The primary reason for this change at work is that of bad execution and management’s decision. For example, the companies managers are the one those are having right to implement the changes cascade along to them by the directors.
There are various methods that can help the managers to overcome the resistance to changes within an organization. Some of them are mentioned below:
• Overcome opposition: In regards to how well an organization manages a change, there is always be a resistance.
• Effectively engage employees: It can help the superior leaders to listen the employee’s problem that are faced by them during the time.
• Delegate change: This strategy work with the training of employees to take specific decision regarding the future growth and success.
• Show them the data: In case of resistance, it is generally emotional aspects than the logical; it can help to make use of some hard facts as a supplementary plan.
As a successful change model, the firm must start by examine the changes that could be taken place to reach to a common objectives. It can help the employees to increase motivation so that they can perform its role as per the change.
• Unfreezing: It can ensure that the changes adopted by the employees must be as per the requirements of the organization. They can also ready to change for any specific role in the organization.
•Change: This stage provide right to apply the changes that are required by the employees to resolve the negative behavior of the staff.
• Refreezing: This model provide a vital information’s regarding the permanent application of the changes that are required to be done for the employees. Organization culture is being developed by various factors that consist of founder’s values, preference, industry situation, goals and assumptions. The culture is being maintained by drawing attention of the selected attrition, new staff on boarding and rewarding system that is offered within an organization to the employee
The action cycle of reflection practices tend to provide specific act to improve the employee practice, observed the social, practical, and ethical aspects of the practices that can reflect the changes in the employees. The participants tend to examine its individual educational practices in a systematic manner by using this particular cycle to develop a successful intervention to deal with the skills, and increase the capability of the growth of the employees.
In accordance to the organizational development, intervention is said to be a set of sequenced as well as planned action intended to assist the organization to increase the effectiveness and integrity of the employees during the time. These are generally a set of structured program that are framed to resolve the issues, hence enable an organization to reach its goals.
It happens to be the management theory of change that is equipped the leaders to guide and assist the stagnating industry growth. The management tends to take a reliable step to reduce these problem and effective change that cannot be occurred during the time. Therefore, the below mentioned steps are required to be followed to manage the change in the organization.
• Create urgency
• Form a powerful coalition
• Create a vision for change
• Communicate the vision
• Remove the problems
• Create a short-term wins
• Development on the change
• Anchor the change in the corporate world.
You are a newly appointed manager in a workplace that has clear problems, which have been commonplace for more than 12 months. These problems are standing in the way of you turning the company into the best-performing unit that you are aiming for. Until you can fix the situation, the business, and you personally will not be successful.
Amongst the workplace problems are:
• A number of experienced staff, who have valuable workplace knowledge, no longer seem willing or able of maintaining the needed work ethic.
• Supervisors and middle managers do not have the leadership and motivation skills to encourage employees to do their best.
• Junior staff feels frustrated by the lack of direction and opportunities the organisation is giving them to succeed.
• There is a clear lack of communication and trust between the different levels of staff and management.
• One of the key weaknesses is the Payroll Officer, who
1) gives inaccurate financial reports in the key areas of wage costs,
2) the reports are hardly ever given to management when they are due
3) has made costly mistakes with superannuation and payroll tax.
• The two managers before you tried unsuccessfully to improve his performance and replace him. To make the problem worse, the Payroll Officer is the husband of the business owner.
You need to plan the Organisational Development strategies, interventions and actions that you can use to overcome these problems? Think about the following issues to plan your OD strategies:-
• Tactics/strategies for each level of staff
• How will you get each group to begin working with, and for each other
• How will you handle those staff that are resistant to changing the current work practices
• The existing staff are well aware of the previous managers’ failed attempts to improve Payroll, and will be judging you on how you deal with the delicate situation.
Use the following headings to write a report to senior management about how you will fix the problems within this organisation.
a. What are the key issues?
According to the above case situation, it has been seen that the organization is facing a lot of problem with the employees those are working at the workplace. Some of the key problems are:
• Lack of communication
• Junior staff is not able to get right direction due to which they get frustrated.
• Lack of leadership skills and motivation among the middle manager and supervisor.
• The payroll manager was also not able to deliver accurate reports
b. Explain why this situation is normal in all organisations?
These types of problems are generally occurred in almost of every organization because they does not have a reliable level of structure of communication system that can help them to work affectively. Although some of the organization are stick with the old and senior employees because of its long-term experience ability to handle the situation. But it will lead to create directly influence on the performance of the lower-level because of which they are not able to deliver its best results.
a. What results do you want to see after the problems are fixed?
After the implementation of the right strategy or cultural modification in the organization, I would like to see below mentioned change:
• High morale of employee
• Effective communication system
• Good leadership
• Advance technological transformation
a. What are the different types of Organisational Development interventions that you could use?
(Read the theory and list all the interventions you could use to resolve this problem) During the organizational development, it has been seen that the manager tend to be use various intervention strategies or methods that can assist them to resolve the problems and improve its effectiveness for the longer period. Some of the vital interventions are:
• Diagnostic activity
• Team building
• Sensitivity training
• Intergroup relationships
a. Which specific Organisational Development interventions will you use in this case?
In the context with the above organizational problem, I have decided to make use the Team building intervention to resolve the problems effectively. The reason behind doing so is to enhance the effectiveness as well as satisfaction of the individual those are working in a group in respect to again the desire goals of the organization. It is said to be vital to determine the working group’s issues as it is early sign of the problems so that solution should be applied before it can lead to serious complication.
b. Why do you think they are the best?
It has been seen that employees are considered asset of the company, therefore it is happen to be the primary responsibility of the manager to take the specific concern of each employees together with the success of the organization. Apart from this, it is vital to recognize the working ability of the workers so that they can perform its role in an efficient manner.
List the detailed steps for the selected interventions in the table below:
a. What is the key point you want to be noticed in your Organisational Development Plan?
• The problems should be tackling early so that future growth and sustainability can be enhanced.
• The senior level managers should need to take corrective decision by changing certain policy regarding the employee’s motivation.
• Leadership weaknesses are affecting the junior staffs because of low morale.
b. What is the most important recommendation you want your plan to make?
It has been suggested to apply an innovative change model that can focused on the development of the employees rather than affecting its dignity. They need to communicate directly with the employees so that actual problems can easily be identified early. According to the above case situation, it has been seen that the organization is facing a lot of problem with the employees those are working at the workplace. Some of the key problems.
A major supermarket chain in Brisbane employs 100 trolley pushers who collect all the trolleys that customers leave scattered around the car parks and streets. Also, the supermarket employs 400 Check-Out staff that scan the customers’ purchases and put them in bags for customers. The supermarket chain has 4 big outlets in Brisbane.
The supermarket has identified an innovative trolley technology that uses computer chips on the trolleys that can automatically scan every item that is put into the trolley. The supermarket has trialled this technology and is satisfied that it will result in significant cost cuts for the company in terms of reduced staffing, improved productivity and fewer transaction errors.
They have also identified a process of ensuring that customers return their trolleys in the trolley bays. The new process will require customers to put a $2 coin into the trolley to access the trolley from the bay. After they have completed their purchases, they can return and attach the trolley to the trolley line-up to retrieve their $2 coin. The supermarket trialled this process with a small percentage of its regular customers. Some customers did not mind the new system, but others were very unhappy with the added inconvenience.
The CEO and the leadership team of the supermarket are very excited about introducing both the above systems. They believe that it will result in a net profit increase of $12million in staff costs and efficiency costs. They have purchased the computerised trolleys already from Germany and the shipment is ready to be brought into the stores from their warehouse. They want to implement the change within 3 months. According to the above case situation, it has been seen that the organization is facing a lot of problem with the employees those are working at the workplace. Some of the key problems.
The staff has been advised about this technology and the plan to introduce the self-checkout $2 trolleys within 3 months. The trolley pushers have contacted their Union as they are concerned that at least 80%of them will lose their jobs. They are also concerned that those who do not lose their jobs will need to learn the new systems and may get fired if they are not able to handle the new technology.
The checkout staff is also very worried. The middle managers are also unhappy because they are not sure if the training can be achieved within 3 months. Most staff believe that the change will affect not only their small teams, but the entire culture of the organisation.
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