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The study shall be based on the impact of Current and historical events, healthcare policies and service provision on the health of two culturally Diverse communities, that is the Torres Strait Islanders of Australia and Jarawa Tribes of India. These are among the many tribes which have been badly defiled by Eurocentric Modern civilization. There has been an estimate that the Torres Strait Island people accounts for 2.5% of the total population of Australia and among the 5,48,370 individuals, recognized as Aboriginal tribal people (Census of 2011) (www.abs.gov.au, 2018). Torres Strait Island people accounted for 6.4% of the total indigenous Australian tribes and 0.1% of the total people residing in Australia.

The Jarawa people inhabit the south and middle part of Andaman and Nicobar Islands (part of India). They account to around 380 individuals out of total population of India (Census of 2011). The first part of the study shall consider carrying out of analysis related to historical and cultural events that have impacted on the groups. While the second part shall be a detailed comparison between the two groups based on the risk factors, health outcomes and other things.

Basic Outline of the two groups:


The historical and current events that have impacted on the risk factors of Group 1 and the reason behind it: Before the intrusion of Europeans in to the Australian continent the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people used to live a semi-nomadic lifestyle where their primary source of food was through hunting. This can be inferred that they used to live an active lifestyle which involved a substantial amount of physical exertion. However, with subsequent Westernization of the region through colonialism has had a lot of detrimental effects on their health. Building up of cities and rapid urbanization meant that they could not lead a nomadic lifestyle anymore and neither could the environment provide enough food for their subsistence anymore. As a result, their lifestyle changed drastically which were used to the nomadic way for thousands of years. This created a lot of health problems for the people.

Moreover, these people were marginalized racially and politically by white Europeans. As a consequence, they could not have access to schools and proper education. Other discriminatory practices were also perpetrated against them. They were forced to leave their homes and children were taken away from mothers. And standardization of European culture resulted in the loss of their language and indigenous practices and beliefs. Therefore, it can be understood that the native Torres people were relegated to a completely secondary position to the white European. There was no scope for the aboriginal person to get access to proper healthcare facilities. In the present day too, the rate of education and empowerment of the aboriginal peoples is quite low.

The ways health care policies and service provision influenced the health outcomes for Group 1


The Average life expectancy of the tribal people of Torres Strait are 17 years lesser than the normal residents of the country (www.abs.gov.au, 2018). The unavailability of proper primary health care and infrastructure and poor living conditions affects the people badly and causes various diseases among them. However, in the few years, the policies adopted by the Government could bring a little improvement as death rates from cardiovascular disease among them have fallen by 30% since 1991, and by 70% in the last 35-years (www.humanrights.gov.au, 2018). As per the estimates of 2004, only 40% of these people got access to the basic healthcare facilities (www.humanrights.gov.au, 2018). The particular reason for degraded mental and physical health seen among the Torres Strait people (even after steps being taken and heath councils being set up) can be related to racism, deployment and shunned access to original place of habitation. The various of the health policies taken up by Council of Australian Government such as ‘National Commitment to Improved Outcomes in the Delivery of Programs and Services for Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders’ in 1992 (www.abs.gov.au, 2018). This step was taken to address the gaps of health facilities among the Torres Strait people. However with little achievement, the plight of the people were finally lessened in 2001, when the COAG agreed upon setting up 10 Government Community trials to render essential services and facilities to the people (www.humanrights.gov.au, 2018). From 2004 to 2009, a national Strategic Framework was setup to immediately address to the child and maternal issues and other kind of health issues which finally reduced the toll of death that were seen to be common among these aboriginal people. In the recent years, the Government had made a budget of $1.57 billion in order to spent on the welfare of these Torres Strait Islanders (www.humanrights.gov.au, 2018). All these efforts by the Government has somewhat brought a considerable increase in the health conditions and life expectancy amo9ng these people.  



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