Automation can have the power of transformation of the structure of the employment for different types of job. The concept of automation can be defined as an automatic control of different machinery systems, productive or packaging system, communication or networking system by the use of the different operating software. This can be applied almost in all industries like car manufacturing, banking, aircraft manufacturing, and food processing industries and also for the authors to write automatically with the use of technology. The main aim of the automation by the organizations is to reduce manpower, to get a more precise result, to get the result within a short time span and so on. In this present study, a discussion would be done on the impact of automation in different professions. The different findings would be discussed its advantages and disadvantages in detail in the study.
The idea of Automation can be considered as a new aspect which affects the employment, especially from the 20th century. Initially, the automation technology is used to reduce the burden of the labours, which are performing a heavy job like lifting or dragging heavy materials, more time-consuming works like segregation of different similar kinds of products in different industries and so on. The technology becomes very popular in less time because the time and cost effectiveness and more precision in the work comparing the labours. But the technology requires a high maintenance quality to run it well. In the starting of the 20th century, there are several industries in all over the world where the automation technology has been adopted. That effective adoption of this technology leads to a decline in the employment rate among the workers of different background like production, agriculture or the typewriter of different offices. The changes were quite clear especially in the developed country than the developing country. A global decline in employment in 1990 was 40% in agriculture which became 42% in early 2000. According to Deelman et al. (2015), 87% deterioration was there in the manufacturing job in the developed countries from 2000 to 2010 and 13% deterioration was there of the globalization of the automation. As stated by Groover (2016), in the United States in early 1990, the enhancement of the production was 71.8% more than the previous year but the rate of employment fall down to almost 30.7%. This is resulting in the 72% more production without the involvement of 70% fewer employees. This is very beneficial for the different organizations as the cost to manage the human resource has decreased a lot. This helps to bring the great profit to the companies, even though the maintenance cost was high but the accuracy and more amount of production attract the larger organizations to concentrate more on the automation technology. As stated by Fung (2014), the global participation of automated operation was 10% in 2015 but it is expected that it may become 25% in the near future of 2025. Now a day the modified technologies are able to deduct the maintenance cost and a simpler way of handling the automatic operation. Hence the use of the technology is rapidly increasing in all over the world.
After the successful administration of this automation in agriculture and production, the emphasis has turned to concentrate more on the banking and governmental and non-governmental organization by replacing the typewriters with the robots or indirectly the automated technology. Several studies across the universe have shown that the proper use of the automation technology is less time consuming and more accurate than the manpower. As commented by Tapscott (2012), the efficiency in data processing is 69% more accurate and it takes two thirds less time by the automation than the efficiency of the human being. The maintenance of human resource requires 7% time for managing and developing the ability to perform any kind of job by the workers but still, the efficiency of performing the same job is 9% less than the operating automation system. So more utilization of automation has shown several advantages like by using the technology within a less time more work can be done, the accuracy rate of the job is quite high and most importantly it is enhancing the productivity which is more profitable for the different organizations.
The globalization of automation technology in different kinds of organizations has also created a lot of argument due to the deterioration in the employment rate. According to Chui et al. (2015), the increased demand for automation technology in a different profession, the requirement of human employees has decreased a lot. This has affected the economic status and standards of a lifestyle of the employees due to the condition. This unemployment has an effect on the national economy of a particular country and also for the global economy. This diminished rate of employment has transformed the trend of employment among the workers. More employees are gaining efficiency to operate and handle the automation technology to make them effective for being employed. The trend has been shifted exclusively to the automation technology. The present study would focus to evaluate the impact of this technology in the different profession and also the future trend of the employment style based on the automation technology.
Automation technology has shown a significant transformation in the agriculture and production industry in the early twenties. The organizational managers have become more interested to make a use of the automatic operation system than the manpower for a different type of job. This results in the diminished rate of human employment for a different job. The use of automatic technologies for performing different non-routine tasks in different professions has replaced the use of manpower significantly. Along with that, this transformation has created a lot of instability among the human beings. This is also responsible for some arguments like in the profession of an author the replacement of the human with a robot is not ethically true as the emotional creation is possible by the living beings not by the machines. Such types of arguments have identified some disadvantages of the robotic use for literature types of profession. Also, the replacement of the manpower in the government sectors has shown a prostration among the employees for their remuneration. But still, considering the change in the employment because of automation it can be expected that the potentiality of the future job and frame of the labour force may transform a lot in the near future. As stated by Endsley (2018) the findings from the thorough review of different kinds of literature it is clear that within 2025 the automation would be completely substituted with the different professions of manufacturing, agriculture, and sales related industries.
The present review has helped to find out the key professions where the chance of substitution is more than the other job. That means the profession in agriculture and production industries are more susceptible to the adoption of automation technology than the governmental and other self-employment professions. At the end of the review, it can also be answered that in the near future composition of the employees across the different economic sectors are expected to be attempted a huge change within 2025(telegraph.co.uk, 2018). The substituted labours due to the automation are expected to be shifted towards more in the manufacturing, managing, and handling of automation technologies. Thus the competition of employment would be increased in the information technology related background especially information or software manufacturing technology. It is also expected that the new generation would be more focused towards the technology related carriers due to a better opportunity than any other. Thus the whole scenario is shifting towards the technology comparing the other job. Even in the medical profession, the involvement of several automatic gadgets may enhance the demand of instrument technology workers for the proper maintenance of the automatic machines. Thus it can be predicted that every industry needs the workers for managing the automation technology in future and that job would be in the centre of attraction in the near future.
The automation technology has shown a huge impact on the agricultural, manufacturing industries, especially in the developed country. The trend of adopting this technology is very high even in the coming future. Hence the whole attention of the future of the employment career is shifting to the technological jobs. It can also be interpreted that the structure of labour force will also be transformed for every type of profession. The study has considered the different impacts of the automation technology in some particular profession and also shown the future tendency of the implementation of automation technology in the other professions like medical, freelancing and so on. Apart from that the several advantages and disadvantages of automation technology has also been explained briefly to evaluate the future scope of researching more in this background. Along with that, the present study can be proven a reference for the future research to conduct more studies in the adoption of automation in different professions other than agriculture and manufacturing.
Chen, C.W., Yang, H.C., Chen, C.H., Tseng, C.P. and Lee, K.L., 2013. Retracted: The Relationship between Personality Traits and Sales Force Automation Usage: A Review of Methodology. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing & Service Industries, 23(4), pp.294-305.
Chui, M., Manyika, J. and Miremadi, M., 2015. Four fundamentals of workplace automation. McKinsey Quarterly, 29(3), pp.1-9.
Deelman, E., Vahi, K., Juve, G., Rynge, M., Callaghan, S., Maechling, P.J., Mayani, R., Chen, W., da Silva, R.F., Livny, M. and Wenger, K., 2015. Pegasus, a workflow management system for science automation. Future Generation Computer Systems, 46, pp.17-35.
Endsley, M.R., 2018. Automation and situation awareness. In Automation and human performance (pp. 183-202). London. Routledge.
Fung, H.P., 2014. Criteria, use cases and effects of information technology process automation (ITPA). Browser Download This Paper.
Groover, M.P., 2016. Automation, production systems, and computer-integrated manufacturing. India. Pearson Education India.
Johnson, R.D., Burleson, J. and Thatcher, J.B., 2012. Moving Beyond Automation: A Framework and Research Agenda Studying the Role of Information Systems in e-HR. SAIS 2012 Proceedings.
Shimokawa, K., Jürgens, U. and Fujimoto, T. eds., 2012. Transforming automobile assembly: experience in automation and work organization. Germany. Springer Science & Business Media.
Tapscott, D., 2012. Office automation: A user-driven method. Germany. Springer.
telegraph.co.uk (2018), These are the jobs most at risk of automation according to Oxford University: Is yours one of them? Viewed:02/01/2018 https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/09/27/jobs-risk-automation-according-oxford-university-one/
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