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In the modern world of competition and business, the people are more serious about their career than their health. This assignment will determine the people as the centre of health care and wellbeing experiences. The factors of health and wellbeing will be evaluated from the biopsychosocial perspective. The psychological theories will be observed to determine the change in human behaviour. This assignment will also help to determine the effects and the impacts of the changed human behaviours on the health and the wellness of the human. Lastly, this assignment will also determine the impact of different concepts and theories of modern psychology on the human health and well being.

LO1. The Influence of Biopsychosocial factors on the human life [GA1, 5]


With the advancement of technology in the healthcare organisations, the human lifespan is predicted to rise within next fifty years. Ying is thirty-five years old and has been smoking for last ten years. In the modern world, most of the people are seen to have health issues relating to smoking. According to Linnenluecke (2017), smoking has not one but several impacts on the human bodies and at a time they are incurable. Hence, it is important to understand the impact that smoking already had on Ying in order to determine the treatment. The factors that determine the well being of a person are the Biopsychosocial factors and the life experiences of the person. The Biopsychosocial factors include the communication between the people, their personality, and the environment they live in determine their experiences and the health as well as their lifespan. The social factors also influence the behaviour of a person. The social factors include family, background, and culture. In Ying's case, he communicated with people on a daily basis and smoking is the habit that Ying had developed over the time. Ying's culture and family need to encourage Ying on changing the behaviour in order to change his habit of smoking. As per Meneghel, Salanova & Martínez (2016), nowadays smoking has become a normal habit especially among the middle-aged. Similarly, in case of Ying, the current world does not regard smoking as a bad habit anymore. Throughout the life Ying has communicated and has seen people that smoke on daily basis and from there Ying has developed the habit of smoking.

LO2. Resilience and its effectiveness [GA5]


The healthcare organisations have regarded the resilience as an essential process of treatment for several disorders. As per Michalos (2017), the medication might have certain side effects on a human being but resilience does not any side effects to treat a service user. Therefore, the treatment of Ying needs to include the resilience process in order to provide Ying with the capacity to recover the habit of smoking. Ying has collected information about the effects of smoking on human health. Ying has also initiated a resolution in order to quit smoking. The information will create an opportunity for Ying to quit smoking and lead a healthy life. According to Nelson et al. (2016), the resilience is effective for human behaviour due its common social, mental and physical characteristics. Ying needs to adopt resilience as it will help him to stay mentally and physically strong despite the declining health and personal experiences. As per Patton et al. (2016), high resilience often results in a positive outcome and low depression. Thus, to stay strong Ying needs to adopt resilience in order to ignore the negative psychology and develop positive behaviour that will allow Ying to recover faster. Resilience has been a common practice among the adult and the middle-aged in order to maintain a positive body language and remain mentally and physically strong. However, due to the advancement in modern information and facilities that most of the diseases are curable nowadays. In Ying's case resilience will be effective as it possesses the capacity to withstand the hurdles and the failures without ignoring its main purpose. The resilience will support Ying in overcoming the habit of smoking and will allow Ying to gather the confidence in order to stay healthy and wealthy. However, it is important to ensure that Ying stays in an environment that has the positive influence and proper information need to convey to Ying in order to accelerate the resilience.   

LO3. Psychological theories and models of human behaviour [GA6]


In today's world, the healthcare depends more on adopting the psychological theories and models more than medication. In the case of Ying, the Transtheoretical Model and Motivational Interview Model will provide more benefits than any other models. According to Ramsey & Gentzler (2015), the Transtheoretical Model combines the essential principles and the stages of change from the model of behaviour change. In case of Ying, the Transtheoretical Model has an essential role to play in order to change the behaviour and smoking habit. According to Gu et al. (2015), the Transtheoretical Model is a combined, biopsychosocial model that accelerates the behaviour changing process. Ying needs to undergo the several behaviour changes in order to maintain wellbeing and stay healthy. Therefore, the Transtheoretical Model is recommended for Ying as the model that possesses the ability to change the behaviour of a person in all fields. As per Reason (2017), the Transtheoretical Model can be applied to distinct behaviours, environment, and population and thus it is called Transtheoretical Model. Another model that will benefit Ying in the treatment is the Motivational Interview Model that can be conducted through motivational speeches and lessons. As per Robertson et al. (2015), the Motivational Interview Model has been successful in showing the service a specific direction that has to lead them to the ultimate cure and improvement. In the case of Ying, the Motivational Interview will develop a specific way that will help Ying to change the behaviour. The Motivational Interview will benefit Ying by the process of engagement, evoking and planning. The engagement will allow Ying to interact with an interviewer about the issues. Through this interaction, the counsellor may recommend healthy discussion or session as the way of relieving him of the daily workplace tension. The last process planning is essential as it will develop a plan to change the behaviour that will allow Ying to quit the habit of smoking.

LO4. Application of Psychological theories and models on human behaviour [GA6]






There are several stages that need to be followed in order to apply the Transtheoretical and Motivational Interview Model on human behaviours. As per Sarafino & Smith (2014), the people undergo a number of stages while modifying their behaviour. Hence, Ying needs to undergo the stages of change cycle in order to modify his behaviours through Transtheoretical Model. As per Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi (2014), in Transtheoretical Model the people remaining in one stage is variable but their necessaries to move on to the next stages of change are not. The Transtheoretical Model can be applied to Ying by following five stages namely Precontemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action, and Maintenance. The Precontemplation will allow Ying to decide whether to adopt the model or not as the Precontemplation stage does not want to take forcible action. The Contemplation stage will come into action if Ying desires to change within next six months. The Preparation stage will allow Ying to get mentally ready for the change. The Action stage will come into play when Ying will have already changed some of the behaviours. Finally, the Maintenance stage will occur when Ying have made all the behavioural changes required. The Motivational Interview Model can be applied to Ying through four stages, Engagement, Focus, Evoking and Planning. The Engagement process includes the Ying's interaction with the interviewer that will help to reduce the tension and depressions. The next process Focus will help Ying to determine a direction that will help Ying to realize techniques of behavioural change. The last process Planning will help Ying to determine the change and develop a plan that will help to initiate the behavioural changes. As per Shoss, Jiang & Probst (2018), the Motivational Interview is the best model to encourage the positive motives and behaviours of a human being.



The health and wellness of the people have become a major issue in the current growing population. With the advancement of the world, the people are developing behaviours that may be harmful to them. Thus, proper healthcare survey needs to be initiated in order to make the people understand the possible outcome of their behaviours and habits. This assignment has identified the influence of Biopsychosocial on the human behaviours. The effectiveness of the resilience has also been evaluated through this assignment. The assignment has shed lights on the psychological theories and models that need to be adapted to change the human behaviours and the application of the theories and models are also observed through the assignment.


Gu, J., Strauss, C., Bond, R., & Cavanagh, K. (2015). How do mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction improve mental health and wellbeing? A systematic review and meta-analysis of mediation studies. Clinical psychology review, 37, 1-12. Retrieved on 7th March, 2018. Retrieved from: https://www.sheffield.ac.uk/polopoly_fs/1.588515!/file/Guetal2015.pdf

Linnenluecke, M. K. (2017). Resilience in business and management research: A review of influential publications and a research agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews, 19(1), 4-30. Retrieved on 9th March. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Martina_Linnenluecke/publication/279181797_Resilience_in_Business_and_Management_Research_A_Review_of_Influential_Publications_and_a_Research_Agenda/links/59fe4948aca272347a277ecf/Resilience-in-Business-and-Management-Research-A-Review-of-Influential-Publications-and-a-Research-Agenda.pdf

Meneghel, I., Salanova, M., & Martínez, I. M. (2016). Feeling good makes us stronger: How team resilience mediates the effect of positive emotions on team performance. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(1), 239-255. Retrieved on 10th March, 2018. Retrieved from: http://repositori.uji.es/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10234/161420/71220.pdf?sequence=1

Michalos, A. C. (2017). Education, happiness and wellbeing. In Connecting the Quality of Life Theory to Health, Well-being and Education (pp. 277-299). Springer, Cham. Retrieved on 11th March, 2018. Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/site/worldforum06/38303200.pdf

Nelson, S. K., Layous, K., Cole, S. W., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2016). Do unto others or treat yourself? The effects of prosocial and self-focused behavior on psychological flourishing. Emotion, 16(6), 850. Retrieved on 1st  March, 2018. Retrieved from: https://cloudfront.escholarship.org/dist/prd/content/qt7pf57270/qt7pf57270.pdf

Patton, G. C., Sawyer, S. M., Santelli, J. S., Ross, D. A., Afifi, R., Allen, N. B., ... & Kakuma, R. (2016). Our future: a Lancet commission on adolescent health and wellbeing. The Lancet, 387(10036), 2423-2478. Retrieved on 10th March, 2017. Retrieved from: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1501102/1/Viner_Commission%20on%20Adolescent%20Health_main%20text%20revised_accepted.pdf

Ramsey, M. A., & Gentzler, A. L. (2015). An upward spiral: Bidirectional associations between positive affect and positive aspects of close relationships across the life span. Developmental Review, 36, 58-104. Retrieved on 18th March, 2018. Retrieved from: http://www.amygentzler.com/wp-content/uploads/Ramsey-Gentzler-2015-Dev-Review.pdf

Reason, J. (2017). The human contribution: unsafe acts, accidents and heroic recoveries. CRC Press. Retrieved on 8th March, 2018. Retrieved from: http://www.who-sells-it.com/images/catalogs/4392/pdf_21286.pdf

Robertson, I. T., Cooper, C. L., Sarkar, M., & Curran, T. (2015). Resilience training in the workplace from 2003 to 2014: A systematic review. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 88(3), 533-562. Retrieved on 6th March, 2018. Retrieved from: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/5063/1/221261_PubSub2848_Sarkar.pdf

Sarafino, E. P., & Smith, T. W. (2014). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions. John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved on 17th March, 2018. Retrieved from: https://researchonline.jcu.edu.au/27775/4/27775%20Sarafino%20et%20al%202008%20Front%20Pages.pdf

Seligman, M. E., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014). Positive psychology: An introduction. In Flow and the foundations of positive psychology (pp. 279-298). Springer Netherlands. Retrieved on 20th March, 2018. Retrieved from: https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/38825564/Seligman_and_Csikszentmihalyi_salud_positiva.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1523955168&Signature=Q1UbiaKmVPmi%2FH7gN7hmdfq0OEM%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DPositive_Psychology_An_Introduction.pdf

Shoss, M. K., Jiang, L., & Probst, T. M. (2018). Bending without breaking: A two-study examination of employee resilience in the face of job insecurity. Journal of occupational health psychology, 23(1), 112. Retrieved on 14th March, 2018. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Lixin_Jiang3/publication/309492404_Bending_Without_Breaking_A_Two-Study_Examination_of_Employee_Resilience_in_the_Face_of_Job_Insecurity/links/582107a408aeccc08af69157/Bending-Without-Breaking-A-Two-Study-Examination-of-Employee-Resilience-in-the-Face-of-Job-Insecurity.pdf


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