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Telecommunication System Engineering


Question 1: active   redundant generator at the main exchange of Telecommunication Company

In the problem statement the used generators which are used at the main exchange of telecommunication company ar4e in redundant in nature. The generators are connected in parallel.


1.a) Calculate the reliability of the overall system Rs as a   function of R assuming the reliability of each subsystem (or   component) i has the reliability of   R

The probability of survival of all items is the probability of survival of the system is

Thus, Rs = R1 * R2 * …….. Rn 



Let Riare all equal

Hence, Rs= RN

Let the R is represented as the function of f.

Hence, R= m.f

               R1 = m1 . f1    &     R2 = m2 . f2

Case 1: When m ≠ 1

In order to analyze the situation calculating the probability of occurrence of each state is needed. There are fewer down states which are lesser in number than up states if m > ½(n+1).

Case 1: When m =2, n= 3
since m is not less than 1/2(n+1) the results will be aw below.

·         Survives 1,2, and 3

·         Survives 1,2, while 3 fails

·         Survives 1,3, while 2 fails

·         Survives 3,2, while 1 fails

The probabilities can be such as P(i) = R1 . R2 . R3;  P(ii) = R1 . R2 . (1 - R3);  P(iii) = R1 . R3 . (1 - R2);  P(iv) = R2 . R3 . (1 - R1).

The number of events is four.

Hence, RS = P(i) + P(ii) + P(iii) + P(iv)

For m=2, and n=3;

RS = R1R2R3 + R1R2(1 - R3) + R1R3(1 - R2) + R2R3(1 - R1)

Assume all Riare equal to R

RS = R3 + 3R2 (1 - R)

Question 2: Digital Microwave   Radio System

Trans mission speed= 2.048 Mbps

MTBF = 100000 hours

MTTR = 2 hours

BER = 10-8


2.a)Calculation of overall availability

The overall system availability, A (%)= 100(total usage time – downtime) / total usage time

        Availability = 99.998 %

2.b)Draw the reliability diagram of   the system


2.c) How would you increase the availability of the system required by the bank?

Satellite links involve an additional round-trip latency which is approximately one second,

Limit of the speed=TCP/IP communication.

Transmission speed= 2.048 Mbps

If the latency is of 2.1 second

The speed achieves a maximum through out of 200Kbit/sec. TCP will accelerate and will remove that bottleneck. Due to this the line will be allowed to run at its nominal speed. 

2.4) The useful life of the equipment shown in Figure 2 is 15 years. Calculate the reliability of the one radio   terminal at the end of it life

It is taken as at the end of the life reliability of the radio terminal increases as given below. Reliability of a radio terminal depends on the time of availability and the maintenance breakdown. Generally, the number of break down is taken in the count.

Using the reliability demonstration method,  = x2 (α,β) / (2 * time * Af)

As the availability is high the reliability will be 99.99%

Question 3:High-Speed Connectivity

In order to give a high-speed internet service in Australia, the government has introduced the National Broadband Network service. It is a National open-access data network project by the government of Australia. The distribution technology used by the NBN is of four types which are FTTN, FTTP, HFC and FTTC (sars.org.uk, 2018). FTTN is fiber to the nodewhereas the cable optical fiber is used generally. FTTP is fiber to the premises which is used in the development of the green field. HFC is hybrid fiber- coaxial but recently this system got shut down. As mentioned by Alizadeh (2015), FTTC is fiber to the Curb which was introduced in the year 2017.

Question 4 Functions of a   Telecommunication Network

4.a) Limitation to the size of the coverage area of a telephone exchange

The factor that limits the size of the coverage area of a telephone exchange is due to less transmitting channels base station occurs(acma.gov.au, 2018). The bandwidth allocated is fixed for uplink and downlink transmission.

4.b) Limitation to the traffic carrying capacity of a telephone exchange

The factors that limit the traffic carrying capacity of a telephone exchange are as given below.

·         MA transmits data when it is polled to do and it is controlled by BS. If the rate of transmission is too high then in the BS received buffer for the MS would get congested

·         Transmission of a signal through different may result in Fading.

·         When the same channel is used by different cells it limits the traffic carrying capacity and it is called Co-Channel Interface.


acma.gov.au (2018), What technology will connect my premises, Retrieved on : 2nd Jan,2018  From:


Alizadeh, T. (2015). The spatial justice implications of telecommunication infrastructure: The socio-economic status of early National Broadband Network rollout in Australia. International Journal of Critical Infrastructures11(3), 278-296.Retrieved on : 2nd Jan,2018  From:                                                       https://www.inderscienceonline.com/doi/abs/10.1504/IJCIS.2015.072156

De Vos, K. (2015). Actors and roles in electricity markets.Retrievedon : 2nd Jan,2018  From: https://lirias.kuleuven.be/bitstream/123456789/514347/1/2015_Roles%26ActorsSGF_Kristof.pdf

Halat, M., Clotet, X., Gaitán, V., &Bechrakis, D. (2015). Protection elements and methods in Energy and Telecom infrastructure. Retrieved on : 2nd Jan,2018  From:                                                                                                                                      http://rain-project.eu/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/D4.2-Protection-on-Electrical-and-Telecomunication.pdf

Kumar, A. R., & Krishnan, V. (2017). A Study on System Reliability in Weibull Distribution. METHODS5(3).Retrieved on : 2nd Jan,2018  From: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Krishnan_V/publication/314950931_A_Study_on_System_Reliability_in_Weibull_Distribution/links/58c7be4ba6fdcc550cab38e2/A-Study-on-System-Reliability-in-Weibull-Distribution.pdf

sars.org.uk (2018), PROBABILISTIC R&M PARAMETERS AND REDUNDANCY CALCULATIONS, Retrieved on : 2nd Jan,2018  From: http://www.sars.org.uk/BOK/Applied%20R&M%20Manual%20for%20Defence%20Systems%20%28GR-77%29/p4c06.pdf

Wilken, R., Kennedy, J., Arnold, M., Gibbs, M., & Nansen, B. (2015). Framing the NBN: An analysis of newspaper representations. Communication, Politics & Culture47(3), Retrieved on : 2ndJan,2018  From: 55.https://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=113739786975784;res=IELHSS

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