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This essay revolves around the potential influence of social and environmental determinants of health patterns. This study discusses the potential influence of environmental and social determinants of health. It sheds light on the current health issues in context to globalization, infectious disease, social and environmental justice. It evaluates the measures for the development of common health. This essay further entails the principles of legal and ethical public health. This study further justifies the current approaches to public health. The thesis statement of this study is to evaluate the key indicators in context to understanding the determinants of health in spatial patterns


There are several current health issues and challenges persisting in the global context. There are four communicable diseases which have not cured over the time. As commented by Flint (2015, p. 15), obesity, tuberculosis, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases like HIV/AIDS and pneumococcal are some viral diseases that remain unsound. Obesity is one of the major persisting challenges in Australia. Psychiatric, cardiovascular diseases and neurological conditions remain a threat to the Nation. Diabetes mellitus and cancer remain a global disease which causes an eccentric number of deaths per year. As commented by Abeysekara et al. (2014, p. 509), towards the major contributing threats in the world, tobacco was considered the regal issue behind it. Accidents and intentional injuries remain at the top of the global chart. Some issues and challenges like demographic changes, cost of technology, public and private healthcare funding, health inequality and rapid urbanization health issues persists in Australia. Since Australia lacks a cross-stakeholder and a fundamental structure, integration of the national health plans are done initiated successfully. Funds made to the research are also limited to take up modern machinery and tools for the development of the healthcare industry.

Public health can be measured using clinical and pathological measures using various instruments. Overweight and obesity is a major concern in Australia which generates several health risks. According to a report of 2015, a quarter of the adolescent population were overweight. As commented by Robinson et al. (2014, 704), quality of life is measured by monitoring the health care service user. These measures are applicable in context to a wide variety of diseases, specific diseases, and medical treatments. Disease-specific tools include PROMS measures. Population-specific tools include CHIP instruments (The Child Health and Illness Profile). As commented by Carter (2012, p. 457), measures of healthcare are first, to look for satisfaction of the healthcare service users. In 2014, two thirds of the Australians were overweight which accounted up to 11.2 million. Obesity and overweight is classified on the basis of height and weight. Several surveys under the WHO were conducted to record the amount of satisfaction of the healthcare service users. Secondly, quality of health can be initiated by the outcomes from the shreds of evidence and treatment referral. Thirdly, the productivity of healthcare service organizations is evaluated through the bed occupancy and throughput of the healthcare service users. In 2013, Torres Strait Islander Australians were obese and overweight which accounted up to 215,000.

According to a survey in Australia, 63 % people are obese. Excessive weight deploys to be a major problem in context to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancers. Obese people are more susceptible to these diseases other than lean people. Obesity is the major cause of several dangerous physical issues. Being obese can make it difficult for the body to cope up with chronic diseases. According to a survey, indigenous Australians are vulnerable to obesity. 15 % of the newly born Australians were hailed as obese in accordance to the report of 2014-2015. 26 % of children were overweight and obese according to the report of 2014 (aihw.gov.au, 2018).

The principles of ethical and legal public health are first, public health needs to address the requirements and fundamental causes of the disease to prevent the outcomes. Secondly, the policies, priorities, and programs of public health need to be evaluated and developed to procure input from the consumers. The healthcare service institution needs to provide the groups with relevant information for the implementation of the programs and policies. The public healthcare institutions need to work on a timely basis and incorporate several approaches that respect diverse cultures, values, and beliefs of the communities. The healthcare service providers are intended to protect the information that can do harm to any community. Professional competencies of the employees are a must in order to sustain a reputed healthcare organization. The healthcare institutions and their healthcare service providers need to collaborate ways to build public trust. Severe obesity and abdominal obesity were common in Australians. The difference in abdominal obesity was much higher than severe obesity cases. The main cause of obesity was by eating junk food and smoking tobacco. According to a survey, tobacco was held the main reason for the health risks. However, as compared to 1995, the obese proportion of the Australians has decreased by 6%. The number of male obese Australians is 42.4 % in 2015 whereas the female overweight percentage is 28.8% which accounts up to 36 % of the total overweight ratio (aihw.gov.au, 2018).

As commented by Heslehurst et al. (2014, 463), the code of ethics for public health and ethical principles generates response to the distinct aspects. The code of ethics is basically a generalized guide for public health practitioners and institutions.

The code of conduct fits straight to the real-life scenario, in accordance to the fact that the healthcare service practitioners and healthcare care service user’s needs to abide by the rules and regulations set in the code of conduct. Monitoring the health of the healthcare service users are of innate importance for the identification of the community issues. Diagnosis of the health issues and hazards are of innate relevance in the healthcare community.

Primary cares in Australia have evolved as joint ventures can come forward to support the health outcomes. As commented by Trasande and Elbel (2012, p. 40), most of the developed nations have implemented structures for the development of local primary care services. Organisational clinic structures have developed to integrate care to the healthcare service users with chronic diseases. The new organizations are intended to develop primary care in context to culture and trust in sustainable ways. The increases in the comprehensive services have increased innumerably. As commented by Wright and Harwood (2012, p. 20), the services are entailed by a particular group of healthcare service providers. Multidisciplinary teams and pharmacies have increased emphasis on healthcare promotion. Australia has seen an optimal development of the management of the chronic illness. Many initiatives have been incorporated to address primary care and general practice.

As commented by Prentki and Madiraju (2012, p. 89), various other things can be incorporated to promote cost-effective healthcare. The nation is spending a large amount of money in areas of healthcare that is irrelevant and provide no or low benefits. The government of Australia subsidies several health interventions, that does not meet the clinical cost-effectiveness and may cause to the health care service user. The Health Minister needs to take measures to decrease accelerated spending over healthcare services.

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