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Network Server

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Design report

 

IPv4 and IPv6 addressing:

The Ipv4 and Ipv6 addressing are two different modes of addressing. IPv6 has address range to support over 2^128 devices over internet whereas IPv4 support 2^32 number of nodes in internet.

In case of windows server 2008, IPv4 provides features like fragmentation which is required to break the frames into individual components that will bypass each layers limit on data.

IPv6 do not support Fragmentation. The main feature of IPv6 is simplicity. The TTL field in IPv4 refers to Time-to-live for a packet; same version is present in IPV6 under name of Hop-limit. The sub-netting creates scope for the server to manage the internal nodes of a firm or organization. By using sub-netting different addresses are assigned to each node in organization.

The sub-netting performed here is Class C of IPv4 class-full addressing out of the four groups of addressing. The subnet acts as a subset of overall internet specifically designed to manage networking within organizations (Ray, 2016).

DHCP:

 

The options of configuring a DHCP server is through two different modes one by server and other by scope. The mode in this server is ‘server’. In server mode there is equal treatment of all clients within DHCP despite differences in their scopes.

Fixed address and address range refers to static addresses and list of locatable addresses.

The exclusion of server deals with IP addresses that are non-locatable to any devices. These IP addresses are static in nature and do not convey any meaning when allocated to clients. The DHCP server removes the specified address manually by network administrator. The system removes such addresses from its list through facilitating user-interface by which the excluded address is entered into Start IP address.

Scope refers to allocation of IP addresses by administrator. It helps the server to configure the settings related to clients address management (Suh et al.  2014).

File services:

 

There are two main partitioning schemes GPT and MBR. In case of GPT which is used in modern server systems. GPT refers to GUID-partition table. The MBR refers to Memory-boot-table. In MBR there is a requirement of a boot loader which loads the portion of operating system into main memory. The boot loader is set of instructions typically 0.3% of overall operating systems code. In this server’s case the GPT is preferred.

The main job is performed by set of operating hard drives whereas the other set of hard drives ensures the maintenance of errors and faults. Typically there are 7 levels of RAIDS. Extended partition scheme allows the partitioning of original server’s hard-drives into another added level of partition. It incorporates usage of logical partitioning to create a virtual partition through MBR.

In disk quotas the system administrator restricts the usage of files in a system top a specific group and creates a limit on use of disk space. The administrator can impose different levels of restrictions on users.

Encrypted file system provides security to files that cannot be accessed by intended user. The encrypted file system contains data in encoded format using private or public-key-cryptography.

This feature is enabled to avoid attackers gaining access to physical system.

Files, directories, sharing and permission access to the server refer to policy for governing data access to different users.

Sharing is performed by creating a shared folder and sends the files to a selected group through it (Raleigh, 2017).

In case of NTFD, FAT and HFS the server causes allocation of files to be stored in a list wise format. In NTFD the file system is windows based and uses B-Tree indexing to store files in way for efficient retrieval and access whereas FAT uses sequence of linked lists in memory to refer to any area. Shadow-copy services refer to creating backup of file while it is being written.

SMB enables various nodes in organization/subnet to share files and printers etc. Working on Application layer also provides inter-process communication after authentication.

Named-resolution services

 

In these services hosts are identified based upon hostnames unlike IP address which cannot be easily memorized. The hosts convert hostnames into IP addresses. Most prevalent form of named-resolution-service is Domain Name System (DNS). DNS follows hierarchical structures

The client requires to be configured by using TCP/IP settings of windows through adapter settings. The server’s IP addresses are added to the system to run DNS queries.

The conditional forwarding requires internet/intranet-name resolution. The messages are forwarded only to certain domain names. If forwarding of messages cannot be performed on local forwarder, configuration of local forwarder is also performed.

DNS types supported are A, NS, CNAME, SOA, PTR, MX and TXT etc.

The type of DNS record supported by server is (AAAA) in case of IPv6 used as network layer protocol.

The DNS zone of the organization is ‘.org’ because the organization for which server is built is a non-profit organization. Other important zones are ‘.com’, ‘.net’, ‘.edu’ and ‘.country code’ etc.

Dynamic updates refer to upgrades done automatically through internet. The updates require modification of current server features to include new ones. The external forwarders refer to forwarding the packets outside the subnets (Wang  et al. 2015).

Root hints are another way of redirecting DNS queries. Root hints are represented by pointers referenced to higher level hierarchy of DNS. Root hints are used to configure the servers that will be used in non-root zones. Root hints are used at lower levels of the namespace. Root hints refer to point at top while forwarders refer to chain of hierarchy.

Web and proxy services

 

IIS:

IIS refers to extended version of web server by Microsoft to support HTTP, HTTPS, HTTP/2, FTP, NNTP and SMTP this feature was developed especially for Microsoft-windows-NT 4.0.

IIS was initiated as project in University of Edinburgh. The later versions were developed to remove the network management problem and were named as IIS 1.0, IIS 2.0, and IIS 3.0 etc. The later version of IIS was developed for including the authentication features, after 6.0.

Squid:

Squid is web cache server developed under UNIX system. The Squid supports caching of web contents of HTTP and FTP. Main purpose of using caching is increased access speed to web pages and a reduction in congestion (network).

ISP provides faster download speeds and reduction in bandwidth latency by adopting Squid.

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