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Inquiry in health care



The current essay involves the evaluation of the evidence present in two journal based on usage of drugs for cognitive stimulation. It is observed that the use of non medical drugs also known as smart drugs has been increasing at an alarming rate. The essay demonstrates critical evaluation of health scenario from the evidence provided by two research journals that are –

Hildt, E., Lieb, K., & Franke, A. G. (2014). Life context of pharmacological academic performance enhancement among university students - a qualitative approach. BMC Medical Ethics, 15(1), 23-23.  and Munro, B. A., Weyandt, L. L., Marraccini, M. E., & Oster, D. R. (2017). The relationship between nonmedical use of prescription stimulants, executive functioning and academic outcomes. Addictive Behaviors, 65, 250-257. and Munro et al. (2017). 

Based on the evidence provided by the journals, several judgments and analysis of the health issue have been evaluated by addressing PICO questions. Finally, a critical comparison of evidence in between the two provided journals is also detailed in the current essay.  

2. Part A

2.1 Authorship

Elisabeth Hildt is an expert of ethical and technological innovations in the field of neuroscience. She is engaged with Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions in Illinois. Josh Lieb had started writing and analyzing human psychology after completion of graduate degree from Harvard. He is famous for is humorous reflections. Finally, Herbert W. Franke is related to the field of future research and science fiction. The respective article has got the reflection of academic performance through all of the above expertise.

a. Making a judgement about the author’s expertise, qualifications and affiliations The author Hildt, Lieb & Franke (2014), Dr. Hildt is a professor of Philosophy while Dr. Lieb has done Ph.D. in the field of mathematical geophysics. Prof Dr. Frank has also done Ph.D. in social work and education. All the authors are highly qualified and they provided illustrative evidence regarding the academic enhancement and performance by the use of pharmacologic drugs. All the authors have provided a qualitative approach regarding the topic. All Dr. Marraccini, Dr. Oster, Dr. Weyandt and Dr. Munro has done Ph.D. in psychology. All the authors are extremely qualified in the field of psychology and in the given journal they provided an insight into the relationship between the nonmedical use of stimulants and their functioning in the body of an individual. The authors provided data and the outcomes of using the stimulants. The effects and influence of the stimulants are explained in details in the research journals (Andersen et al. 2014). 

b. Relation of the conflict of interest with   the paper of the author and study of the findings Hildt, Lieb & Franke (2014) explained in the research journal that the enhanced academic performance is not only dependent on the use of stimulant but also dependent on the context of multifaceted life. The research does not completely justify the research questions and henceforth requires further investigation and study of the research. Therefore, the authors could not achieve a positive outcome of the findings and there was an influence of conflict of interest on the presentation of the findings of the research (Redpath et al. 2010). Due to the inability of the author to provide complete positive findings, proper funding was not present.

Munro et al. (2017) successfully explained in the research that there has been a significant relationship between the nonmedical use of prescribed stimulants and the executive functioning of the students. The authors were able to provide a clear justification of the relationship between the nonmedical drugs and executive functioning and henceforth the authors were able to present a positive outcome. There was no conflict of interest among the authors and the findings of the study because of proper funding (St Andre et al. 2013).

2.2 Aims of the research

a. Research questions, aims and hypothesis

The research questions of the journal written by Hildt, Lieb & Franke (2014) were as follows-

1.What is the use of stimulants in improving the academic performance of the university students?

2.What are the effects that the stimulants can make in an individual’s body?

3.How do the stimulants improve the activity of the university students?

4.Does cognitive enhancement solely represents the use of drugs for better academic performance? 

The main aim of the journal was to put forward the phenomena of the pharmacological performance in the field of academics by the use of several prescribed stimulants that are used illicitly. The study mainly focuses on the experience and influence of the drugs on the academic performance of the students.

According to Munro (2017), the research questions are as follows-

1.What are the differences between the non- medical and medical use of prescribed drugs?

2.How the illicit use of nonmedical drugs have an effect on an individual's body? 

3.What is the relationship between the nonmedical use of stimulants prescribed and the executive functioning of the drugs?

4.What are the academic outcomes of the nonmedical use of prescribed stimulants?

The main aim of the journal is to establish a connection between the use of nonmedical use of stimulants and the academic outcome.

The research study provided by Munro et al. (2017) is much more clear and evident as because it deals with the relationship and effects of the use of stimulants on the executive functioning of the body. 

b. Justification of the author’s need for the studyHildt, Lieb & Franke (2014) explained in the research that there occurs an involvement of stimulants with the cognitive enhancement of the students. There has been an increased use of stimulants among the students as because they think that while consuming the stimulants their academic performance has been increased and improved. Henceforth, it is crucial to perform a research in order to justify whether the students claim of increased performance while consuming the stimulants actually exists. The research reveals that there is a connection of the stimulants with the cognitive and increased academic performance but a complete justification was not achieved and a more detailed justification and investigation in the context is required in the future research models.  




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