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Ethics Assignment

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1.0 Introduction

Hacking has always been made a stereotypical negative approach in terms of technology. In order to comply this term with a positive purpose, it is linked with "Biohacking”. It belongs to a “hacker ethic” which is based on certain stipulated positive principles like general quality of life improvement and assessment to information universally. A group of people termed as "grinders" who helps in doing body modifications is identified. In this modern era of globalization, it is seen that the human enhancements provided by biohacking can be bought or sold. The effectiveness of enhancing the human lives has led to the co modification of the qualities and traits.  Mixing the modern forms of advertising technology and biohacking, the producers have been pretty successful in convincing the customers about the positive effects of the products.  In this report, a brief overview of the implications of transhumanism for the notion of human identity will be discussed. Transhumanism has been considered as an international movement which uses biohacking for improving human life. Its potential impact on human identity is the matter of concern here. The problem will be addressed by stressing on the improvement of moral implications. This report will throw light upon the change in the mortal duties of the citizens and steps which are needed to be taken to get a positive outcome.

2.0 Analysing companion robots ethically

2.1 Utilitarianism

It is the normative theory which defines the right and wrong pertaining to the choice of one action over another action. It takes the help of Bentham’s principle of utility that recognises the relevance of pain and pleasure in human form. It also approves or disapproves the actions taken on the basis of pain and pleasure (Thomas, Burmeister & Low, 2017). The role of transhumanism not only affects the ontogenetic activity but also detects the bodily and social identity as well. In this segment, it will be seen that how the human enhancement technologies have affected the bodily and social identity in the modern world. In the so-called contemporary society, the advertisements of the products by the commercial firms have brought in enhancements in humans in the form of social identity. A few of the products such as performance-enhancing drugs and cosmetic surgery that has been commercialised through biohacking technologies has come in the forefront due to the provision of bringing pleasure in human lives. In terms of consumerism, the products are meant to improve one's life if they are meant to improve one's social status (ethics and technology.eu, 2017). Amalgamating the modern forms of advertising technology and biohacking, the producers have been pretty successful in convincing the customers about the positive effects of the products. In this modern era of globalization, it is seen that the human enhancements provided by biohacking can be bought or sold. The consumers nowadays can buy various traits such as height, beauty, intelligence and strength (pbs.org, 2017). It leads to the commodification of traits. This, in turn, states that the traits can be purchased or sold. The meanings of these traits become less prominent as a consequence. These traits lose the meaning of being a "naturally good" since they now have become a commercial good for the society which can be bought or sold. They no longer stay as benchmarks of fixed human nature but become markers of wealth and social status. If the demand of the urgency of new products of commodities increases it will be seen available to the middle class as well. It is seen that in Australia, about 50% of the women in their 30’s have used cosmetic surgery in the form of facial surgery or eyelid surgery (library.brocku.ca, 2017). Enhanced human beings are being considered as high-status quo whereas; the unenhanced human beings are considered inferiors. A step by the Australian government in regulating the laws of advertising procedures of bio hacked products is the only way out for changing the culture.

   2.2 Deontology

It emphasizes on the relationship between different kinds of human actions and moral duties pertaining to them. In terms of deontological ethics, the action is considered moral pertaining to its characteristics and not because of the consequences. The formulation of biohacking technology in enhancing human lives has come up to the forefront with several advancements in the medical sector. The introduction of prosthetic limbs, introduction of cosmetic surgery, implantation of digitised heart as well as chemical treatment of protein supplement food, has made human enhancement in strength, beauty, and intelligence. The actions taken by the producers in commercialising these products have been very fruitful since it has helped an innumerable number of people in gaining the social compatibility. It has given many human lives, the confidence to stand up among the crowd in the form of a normal human being. This has given positive kind of feedback in the form of actions taken (Nucci, Krettenauer & Narváez, 2014). On the other hand, the discrimination of the human classes in accordance with the usage of the products has been a major issue. People who don't have money can't buy the human enhancement products. In turn, they cant change their identity. These human beings are considered as inferiors when compared to those who can afford them. It is also seen that the achievements of those who use the products such as protein supplements and other adulterated foods are not considered as actual achievements because they are not gained by own effort. People should take the responsibility of boosting the self-esteem of these people as well as of the society. This comes as a moral duty of the people supporting the deontological ethics. The relationship between the moral codes of the action of the products in the society has to be taken care of by the people of the society.

 2.3 Social contract

According to Skyrms (2014), this theory tells that all the people lives in the society in accordance to a moral agreement and rules pertaining to political behaviour. As per as this theory, it states that the people in a society should not be judging their social lives and actions in accordance to a divine being but should agree to a specific social agreement (DeLisi & Vaughn, 2014). In this era of globalisation, the introduction of transhumanism has changed the identity of human beings. This has led to the dependency of human beings on a divine form that is technology. All the actions pertaining to beauty, intelligence skills and strength has ended up depending on the technological advancement of transhumanism. The people are judging their social lives and behaviour in accordance to the technological assessment. There are many rights and policies that are being maintained in Australia as basic civilian rights of the society that are enforced to establish a social harmony. An increase in the discrimination of the classes of human beings in the society due to change in human identity has led to violation of these rights. In order to maintain a safe and a working society, the actions of the police are justifiable. Under the social contract law the citizens are allowed to surrender their power and rights and delegate them to the legal system (library.vanderbilt.edu, 2017). The social contract laws are being enforced by the police in order to bring peace in the society. The effect of transhumanism also covers the sector of superhuman traits and species. These human beings can be considered as mutants who are abnormal and possess a deviation from the social norm. They can hev traits beyond the human range. This deviation from the norms has led to the breach of social contract laws. An existence of a human identity far superior than others can lead to the formation of a divine power. Advanced cyborgs in the form of amputated brain functions can also be considered as superior beings. Thus, it is the duty of the society to manage the level of usage of technology within stipulated range so that it doesn't outlast them.

 2.4 Character based

This theory is also coined as virtue theory. It is actually an amalgamation of a broader prospectus of theories that emphasises on the relevance of character and induces inclusion of virtue in moral philosophy. It exempts focussing on only duties and consequences pertaining to bringing out the best from the society (Lacey & Lamont, 2014). Advancement in the fields of genetic engineering, robotics, nanotechnology and artificial intelligence has led to the advancement of human character and traits. The transhumanist approach has led to the advancement of the post-humanity factor. The formation high skilled levels of technologies have changed the way human beings defined themselves into categorical self. The usage of transhumanism products has led to the growth of character, superior than the other forms. Advancement in the skill sets of the humans in the society as well as a change in the trait has led to the formulation of a change in the moral philosophy as well. The perspective of seeing a society in its old ways has changed. The impact on personal identity and characteristics has been a major issue of social concern. In medical terms, a development in determining the potential implications of Human enhancement is at stake (nickbostrom.com, 2017). Brushing up on the existing research through innumerable number of trials can be a key to success. The regulations of the assessments pertaining to human enhancements should be done at regular intervals. Avoidance in regulations of new technologies will harm the quality of the society instead of bringing any change. It will bring inequalities of characters in the society and thus moral philosophy will be loosened.

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