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Decision Making and Influence

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Introduction

In the present scenario, effective working of the team is vital for success and growth of organisations. The team members are required to give best of their resources and efforts towards the accomplishment of goals and objectives (Zsambok and Klein, 2014). It can be expressed that for successful team working, the members of the team are required to emphasise on attaining common goals of the team instead of focusing on achieving their personal goals and objectives. The present study outlines the working process of a team which has been provided with the responsibility to a suggested effective method of downsizing for an Australian based company. 

Main body

Team process used

The team process which will be used to complete the downsizing task is mentioned below as:

Developing objectives- It is the first and foremost step in the process of the team working, and here, the company will be looking forward to defining the critical objectives because of which the team is working will be carried out. The objective here is to determine and suggest practical strategies for downsizing within the Australian based firm.

Selecting team members – In this stage, the members of the team will be chosen by parameters which are skill set, knowledge and experience.

Setting up channels of communication – It is a process in team working where people in the team will be establishing the channels which they will be using to communicate with each other. It can be expressed that formal, open and direct channels of communications will be taken into consideration by the team members (Beersma et al. 2016).

Assigning roles and responsibilities – It is a stage where the roles and responsibilities of team members will be awarded. The roles will be allocated from the skill set and knowledge level of the member. In addition to this, the authority will also be delegated to the members so that they do not face issues or difficulties in accomplishing their roles and responsibilities.

Meetings – Meetings are also going to be an integrated part of the process of the team working, and the team will make sure that meetings are conducted at regular and frequent intervals (Dall and Sarangi, 2018).

Decision making models, types, styles and approaches

At the time of working in a team, the classical model of decision making will be taken into consideration. According to this model of decision making, the leader will be required to make a logical decision which will be best suitable for the economic interest in the organisation. The use of this model will also encourage team members to make sure that the decisions are taken to accomplish the common goals which have been agreed upon by all members of the team.

The use of a classical model of decision making will also provide the team with an opportunity to become aware of the criteria which they can use to evaluate the alternatives and options available. It can also be expressed that a flexible team decision-making approach will be taken into consideration to attain the success of the team (Certo, 2018). The primary and most important benefit associated with the use of the flexible approach to decision making is that it will provide the opportunity to carry out desired changes as and when they are required.

The chances of modifications or changes become almost zero when a rigid approach to decision making is used, and therefore, the team will not use rigid approach. The use of flexible approach will support in creating changes in decision making easier and will create a sense of satisfaction among team members. Regarding style, it can be expressed that team style of decision making will be used (Goodwin and Wright, 2014). According to this style of decision making, the problem and situation will be discussed with all members in the team, and they will be encouraged to come up with a common solution as a team to deal with the problem or situation. The members of the team will also make sure that all alternatives are evaluated effectively before making any decisions linked with downsizing.   

Errors and issues in team decision making

Decision making in teams or groups is not an easy task, and there are different types of errors and issues which can be faced during the same. One of the most common mistakes which can be encountered during the process of group decision making is linked with inadequate consideration of all alternatives available for downsizing (Costanzo and Di Domenico, 2015). The ineffective of attention can result in affecting the overall process of decision making in a negative sense. In addition to this, the team members may not be able to attain desired goals and objectives because of the error mentioned above. Poor examination of decision objectives is also a key error which can be faced during the process of group decision making. In situations where the objectives and goals are not clear among team members, then the chances of effective decision making are very less (Anagnostopoulos, Byers and Shilbury, 2014).

The decision making can also be affected by errors such as failure in carrying out an adequate evaluation of the significant risks associated with the decision which has been taken. It can be expressed that appropriate analysis of risk is vital for success and growth of a team. The risk associated with different options and alternatives available should be analysed appropriately to avoid future issues and challenges. It can be expressed that at the time of carrying out any decision, people in the team are required to search for information (Salas and Martin, 2017). Here, different sources of information are taken into consideration to carry out useful decision making.

The error here is linked to data search with can be either bias or insufficient. The impact of such data search is that it can result in creating issues in decision making and obtaining desired outcomes of the decision. To carry out appropriate and useful decision making, the team members are required to develop and implement valuable strategies which can support in eliminating the mentioned above errors and issues in the best possible manner (Flin and Arbuthnot, 2017). It is also needed for the members of the team to carry out monitoring of all activities and strategies so that loopholes or errors can be identified and control measures can be taken by the same. 

Impact of culture, age and other factors on decision making

Factors such as culture, age, gender and individuals personality differences can have a direct and adverse impact on the overall decision making in the group. In simpler terms, culture is defined as the set of values and belief which directs the behavior and attitude of individuals. The culture differences can bring issues and conflicts between the team workers because of the variation in their thinking and way of doing work. The difference in age and individual’s personality differences are also considered as critical in creating issues and disputes between the members of the team. The best and most effective solution to deal with demographic and cultural differences among team members is of encouraging collaboration between them.

The people in the team should be encouraged to respect the views and opinions of other members. In addition to this, training and development sessions will be supported so that the culture, age, gender and individuals personality differences can be resolved in every possible manner (Goetsch and Davis, 2014). The training sessions will promote collaboration among members by providing them with an opportunity to understand and become aware of the thinking and working style of each other. To address the issues linked with culture, age, gender and individuals personality differences, the members in the team will be encouraged to focus on the accomplishment of common goals and objectives instead of seeking for ways to attain personal objectives (Shepherd and Rudd, 2014). Agreed channels of communication will be developed and established to make sure that the culture, age, gender and individuals personality differences do not affect the process of decision making. To create satisfaction among members from different personal and cultural backgrounds, their views and suggestions will always be taken into consideration during the process of decision making linked with downsizing.  

Steps to ensure ethical challenges

To deal with ethical issues or challenges in the process of decision making, a five-step model of decision making will be taken into consideration. The five stages of ethical decision making are mentioned below as:

Assessment – It is the first and foremost stage in which the team members will make sure that they have all facts and information about the ethical issues linked to the decision making of downsizing (Bryson, 2018). Here, the team members will ensure that the decision of downsizing abide by the laws and by the company’s code of conduct.

Alternatives – In this stage of the ethical decision-making process, the team members will be focusing on considering all choices and options available to them.

Analysis – In this stage, the validity, reliability and feasibility of all alternatives and choices will be examined (Morente-Molinera et al. 2015).

Application – In this stage of ethical decision making, the team will apply the ethical principles to the decision. Here, the objective will be to make sure that all the ethical issues and challenges are resolved in the best and every possible manner.

Action – It is the last stage in the ethical decision-making process, and here, the member of the team will be taking the most suitable and appropriate decision linked with downsizing (Wu et al. 2018). However, it can be critically argued that here the members will be required to make sure that they are willing to take responsibility for the decision which they have made. 

It can be expressed that ensuring and carrying out ethical decision making is an active process because it can result in creating a strong sense of satisfaction among the people and parties which are associated with the decision. 

Minimizing hidden profits

Hidden profiles’ and ‘social loafing’ and ‘cascading distortions of information’ are considered as three major and most important elements which can have a direct impact on overall functioning and performance of members in a team (Pérez et al. 2014). To reduce the impact of above mentioned three elements, the team leader will be required first to understand the causes of hidden profiles’ and ‘social loafing’ and ‘cascading distortions of information’ within the group (Cabrerizo et al. 2014). The common cause of such activities is that when the total number of people in a team increases, the personal accountability of individuals tends to decrease and this encourages individuals to focus on areas such as hidden profits and social loafing (Xu and Wang, 2016). 

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