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To understand the role and application of change management process in the present generation of organisations, this reports aims to provide a discussion on its intrinsic aspects and challenges. Change management encompasses all the tools, techniques and processes required to help individuals make successful transition contributing to realisation and adoption of change. Managing strategic, operational and various other changes within a business have emerged to be a core challenge for managerial professionals and employees. This report will analyse the different theories of change management and evaluate the present challenges involved in the process. Suitable recommendations will be provided at the end.

Significance of Change Management

Change management drives adoption and effective usage so that organizational processes deliver expected outcomes and success. It helps an organisation to survive in a changing world through delivery of results on each change more effectively. It is important as it facilitates building of competencies in order to tackle unanticipated changes. As opined by Ionescu et al. (2014), significance of the process also lies in its ability to deliver human-dependent portion of the project ROI. About 80-100% of project success depends how the team is able to change process during the course of the project as per requirements. Change management facilitates this by helping people to develop ways of adapting faster to immediate requirements.

Change management increases the possibility of project success. The return on investment captured through change management is relatively more than projects without change management. It is seen about 94% of projects achieve success with efficient change model while 15% project achieve success without change management. It is highly essential for organisations to gauge and assess the dynamics of its external environment for establishing and envisaging appropriate relationships with its stakeholders (Tudor, 2014). Through comprehending the intrinsic aspects of change management, managers can understand process of meeting changing requirements of the organisation. Change management also brings about a reduction in the gap between results and requirements. It is often seen that organisations meet changes without delivering appropriate results. Change management reduces the gap through providing support and equipping people who may be impacted through the change. Mitigating critical risks of mission is also a significant contribution of change management towards organisational operations.

Change Management Theoretical models



In the present competitive business environment, organisations regularly face unanticipated requirements in operations. The external conditions impose stringent regulations and specifications that the organisations are forced to implement. Organisations implement various theoretical change management models for achieving sustainability and success.

Lewin’s Three step Model

Kurt Lewin developed a 3-step process for meeting organisational changes. It provides managers with a structured framework for implementing change effort. The process is sensitive and needs to be seamless. As opined by de Andrade et al. (2016), the model helps a manager to make radical changes, minimise disruptions of structural operations and adopt a permanent process of change.

The three steps are unfreezing, changing and refreezing respectively. Current generation organisations use this model widely since it provides a synchronised and transparent framework. After an organisation realises, it unfreezes the current processes. This includes analysis of each step and HR interaction for the required improvements. Unfreezing is also applied to organisational perception about the future change and its resistance. The next step is enforcing changes through communication, education and collaboration. As opined by Aljohan (2016), changes often include adopting a new marketing policy or operational strategy. After the change has been implemented, an organisation refreezes the newly made status quo. The processes are sent back to previous stages. Regular reviews are made to keep the new processes in the right place.

Kotter’s Eight-Step Model

Many of the information technology organisations apply Kotter’s model for implementing change management. Managers are required to budget, plan, organise staff and control departmental leaders for establishing direction and aligning people. As opined by Calegari et al. (2015), the success of Kotter’s model of change management depends on effective leadership and capability of establishing predictability and order. Kotter's eight steps are designed in a synchronised way to offer effective change management services to organisations.

As depicted in the figure the change management model is divided into three phases, namely creating climate for change, engaging the organisation, introducing, and sustaining the implemented change. Three steps are covered in the first and second phases while the third phase includes two steps. Through Step 1, organisations develop a sense of urgency through identification of potential threats and examination of possible opportunities. Step 2 includes development of a group or coalition through convincing people about the change. This coalition, as stated by D'Ortenzio (2012), has to work as an integrated team for building momentum and urgency for change. Step 3 creates a vision for the change by explaining employees the target goals and objectives. 



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