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Cross Cultural Management and Communication


.Cross cultural leadership and management is the most important aspect as well factor ythat plays significant role to manage organizations. Cross cultural leadership plays the key role in helping people to accommodate and get accustomed to variable working conditions. If a people start working in an organization, it’s important for them to get habituated with the cultures along with the customs with the other workers of the organization. Getting to know about the different cultures that are followed in an organization helps a person to understand the people in the organization and how to interact with them. Having knowledge about the different cultures that are followed in an organization makes sure that a person can avoid any kind of communicational conflict. To know about the cultures of an organization, it is important to make sure that people are not getting into any sort of conflict in an organization in regards to the customs and cultures of the workers at one place where they are working (Issakoshar, 2012).. Finally having knowledge about the cultures and customs of the fellow workers help a certain person to percent any kind of conflicts. With the knowledge about different cultures and rituals people can easily interact with others present in the organization. It helps people to stay within limits and avoid breaching of cultural protocol that might offend someone else. It is the cross cultural management of an organization that helps to educate people about different cultures and have respect about the cultures that are followed in an organization.

As told by Allan Bird and Mark E. Mendenhall, cross cultural management present in an organization is something that helps to make sure that people working in the organization work from their comfort zone. Speaking in a different way it means when a person is forced to move from his origin country or native country and manage a specific organization, it should be made sure that the person knows about the different cultures and ethics present in the organization. It should also be made sure that all the cultures are followed in the organization so that the person is capable of managing the people working with him or under his management. It is essential for that person to know about the culture where the organization is situated as it would help him to carry out a healthy interaction with the people of the organization and the people who live in close proximity to place where the organization is established.The three types of cultural managementas told by Bird and Mendenhall areunicultural, comparative and intercultural management (Bird and Mendenhall, 2016).

The authors have explained is a simple way that unicultural management assists the management to get accustomed to a single and specific culture of a country. Getting comfortablewith the specific culture, it becomes easy to find solutions to any kinds of conflicts and issues that might rise in the organization. Concurrently, it is made possible for the management to have a successful interact with the staffs in a much easier and user friendly way. The foundation to unicultural management is sociological and anthropological paradigm. This assists the management to proceed with its works in a simple and much user friendly way(Bird and Mendenhall, 2016). Such an interaction is helpful because the management uses the culture to interact with the people of the organization. As for example if any American company plans establish its branch office in any of the Asian markets, it would have to appoint Asian officials in the offices so that the management is able to interact with the staffs in their local and native culture. Unicultural management helps in following a specific type of culture because most of the staffs of the company belong to the same culture and follow the same traditions. This would help in bringingintegrity among the people working in the organization. Additionally it would be beneficialwhile managing the people associated with the organization. On the whole it can be said that unicultural management is aneffective way of preventing any type of conflict inside the organization (Bird and Mendenhall, 2016).

In the next step the authors describe the comparative cultural management. The authors claim that comparative cultural management is the involvement of psychological and sociological approach. On a simple not it means that the management focuses on following a certain psychology and how the specific society works. It means certain societies have specific rules and regulations to follow. Managing the organization on how the society thinks is known as sociological approach. For example if a Japanese company plans on starting business in America, the company might have to follow the rules and regulations that are followed in Japan. The company might have to give leaves and holidays to its employees based on the Japanese calendar. Contrarily psychological approach of the management involves managing the country according to the psychology of the organization(Bird and Mendenhall, 2016). In order to understand in a simple manner, if a Chinese company plans on starting business in Europe, it might be strict with the rules and regulations of the organization and abide to them with great dedication. Violating of any kind of rules or regulation might lead to unfavorable consequences such as firing from the organization. As the Chinese work culture is very strict and stringent towards the rules and regulations and the punctuality, therefore it can be expected that the Chinese organization might follow the custom of punishing the guilty in a harsh manner even if the office is situated outside China. such kind of management is known as comparative cultural management.

In the final phase the authors explain how intercultural management works. The authors explain intercultural management as the gathering of people from different cultures coming to a single organization and work out different techniques to work as a single unit. With the help of intercultural management, the management will be able to gather knowledge about different cultures and make sure that the people associated with the organization work as a single unit and are on the same page. The management while following intercultural management needs to make sure that no one gets offended and all the cultures are respected. In such a way the people working for an organization would be able to work as a single unit and would be able to work without any conflicts or issues. Most of the scholars consider people from different origins working under a single management as a cross cultural management. That is because in cross cultural management the staffs of the organization dwell from different cultures. They are a part of their own cultures. When they arrive to a certain organization, they bring a part of their culture. Respecting and following the individual cultures of the employees make the management follow different cultures. Such a management is called the cross cultural management. In order to make sure that the organization runs smoothly, the management would have to follow different cultures. For example when a European company carries business in the Asian market or in the American market, it has to follow both the Asian and the American cultures and customs to make sure no conflicts arise. In such a way the organization can work smoothly. When a management is able to follow an intercultural management, ity is almost sure to avoid any kind of cultural conflicts.

However, the authors have mentioned a 4th type of management in the later part of the literature which is the global cultural management. This means that the management has to follow different cultures and rituals from different countries across the world. For example any American company explores different markets from different parts of the world and follows the customs and rules to make sure that different cultures across the world are respected and peace and integrity is followed in the organization no matter where the offices are set up. Moreover the company might have to abide to varied cultures and traditions depending on the market of their business. In a simple manner of speaking, it can be said that global cultural management deals 

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