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Bioscience Assignment

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 Task 1

a) Did you include in-text references in your answer and a reference list at the end?

a)      Yes

b)      No

b) What is the purpose of including in-text references and a reference list in an assessment?

a)      Provide evidence for the source of the information

b)      Allows information to be included without paraphrasing

c)      Permits information to be directly copied without rewriting

c) What is the purpose of submitting your assessment through Turnitin?

a)      Allows you to identify material that needs to be referenced

b)      Allows you to identify material that needs to be paraphrased

c)      Allows you to identify incorrect information that should be removed

d) Which of the following Turnitin similarity percentages best represents an assessment that has been well paraphrased?

a)      80-95%

b)      50-60%

c)      10-30%         

Task 2

Question 2

A.   

The main purpose of body temperature regulation is to keep the balance between the body temperature and environment. The normal human body temperature is 98.6 degrees F, which is maintained by the body with the constant heat generation through energy (ATP) production by oxidative phosphorylation (Peate, 2016).    

B.     

Skin performs a lot of roles to protect the body including the regulation of body temperature. According to Wright & Leahey (2012) the collective work of brain and skin help to control the body temperature by the homeostatic reflexes. Skin is responsible to regulate the body temperature based on the temperature of the environment. Through the cellular respiration, activities of muscles, energy production from foods the internal body temperature is produced. Now if the temperature of the environment is more than the body then through the evaporation of fluids as sweat from the sweat glands, the body tries to balance temperature. The evaporation of sweats with the skin temperature makes the body cool.

In a cool temperature, the body reacts through vasoconstriction to balance the temperature. Because of vasoconstriction, the sweat glands constrict and thus it resists the outside temperature to affect the body. As stated by, Fiala et al. (2012), the mechanism behind it by vasoconstriction the flow of blood in the blood vessel constricts which reduce the loss of temperature from the body in the cool weather.

Question 3

A.   

·  Helps in production of hormones: There are several steroid hormones in the body; major component of such hormone is cholesterol.

·  Digestion: Cholesterol plays important role in bile production which helps to digest the fat or metabolised it in the body.

·  Building block element: Cholesterols are the important part in making the cell wall by forming a complex material with protein like glycolipids and so on.

B.     

The high-density lipoproteins are made off with more amounts of lipids. The main function of the HDL is to transport the chylomicrons from the liver to different target cell for their utilizations (Ramakrishnan et al. 2012).

The Low-density Lipoprotein or LDL has functioned exactly opposite like the HDL. The LDL used to take up the lipoproteins, cholesterol from the cells and brings them to the liver or adipose tissues for the storing or utilization.

Thus for a healthy cardiovascular system, a high amount of HDL is needed with a low level of LDL (Badimon & Vilahur 2012).

C.     

The dietary recommendations for HDL are more than 60 mg/dl and LDL have to be less than 150 mg/dl according to American Heart Association for the all. Thus more amount of MUFA and PUFA consumption is helpful to retain the high amount of HDL and low LDL. As stated by Xiao et al. (2016), the consumption of SFA has to be restricted. The olive oil, sunflower oil, rice bran oil is a good source of PUFA and MUFA thus recommended than butter or another source of SFAs.

Question 4

A.     

Name of two nutrients high in Iron is Liver (12 mg/100g) and Muscle (8mg/100g) of meat, and Dates.

The two rich source of B9 is Broccoli and Barley.

B.     

The iron and B9 are two major components for the production of RBC. The risk during pregnancy is hypo chromic macrocytic anaemia which occurs due to lack of the nutrients. The baby needs a 6 moth's store of iron in its body along with the production of the RBC of the foetus itself. As stated by McMurray & Clendon (2015), a sufficient amount of those nutrients can help to bear a healthy child and also reduce the post-pregnancy risks among the mother. Even during menstrual age, non pregnant women need the nutrients for the same reasons.

C. The deficiency disease of those nutrients can lead to -

  • Microcytic Hypochromic anaemia 

  • Macrocytic Hypochromic anaemia

  • And iron deficiency anaemia occurs due to lack of irons.

  • B9 deficiency results in neural tube defects of the baby which is also known as spina bifida (Agodi & Barchitta 2015).

References

Agodi, A., & Barchitta, M. (2015). THE ROLE OF FOLATE AND OF MTHFR C677TPOLYMORPHISM IN HEALTHY YOUNG WOMEN. METHYLENETETRAHYDRO-FOLATE REDUCTASE (MTHFR) IN HEALTH AND DISEASE, 61. . Retrieved on: 5th Feb 2018 From: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ana_Livia_GalbiattiDias/publication/286231374_Glutathione_Biosynthesis_and_mechanism_of_action/links/566ea9e208ae62b05f0b5a8e/Glutathione-Biosynthesis-and-mechanism-of-action.pdf#page=75   

Badimon, L., & Vilahur, G. (2012). LDLcholesterol versus HDLcholesterol in the atherosclerotic plaque: inflammatory resolution versus thrombotic chaos. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences1254(1), 18-32. Retrieved on: 5th Feb 2018 From: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Gemma_Vilahur/publication/224877822_LDL-cholesterol_versus_HDLcholesterol_in_the_atherosclerotic_plaque_Inflammatory_resolution_versus_thrombotic_chaos/links/5a86c25ca6fdcc6b1a36e2cf/LDL-cholesterol-versus-HDL-cholesterol-in-the-atherosclerotic-plaque-Inflammatory-resolution-versus-thrombotic-chaos.pdf

co.uk  (2018). Temperature regulation, Retrieved on: 5th Feb 2018 from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/intermediate2/biology/animal_physiology/brain_nervous_system/revision/6/

 Fiala, D., Havenith, G., Bröde, P., Kampmann, B., & Jendritzky, G. (2012). UTCI-Fiala multi-node model of human heat transfer and temperature regulation. International journal of biometeorology56(3), 429-441. Retrieved on: 5th Feb 2018 From: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/dspacejspui/bitstream/2134/9318/5/Fiala.pdf     

McMurray, A., & Clendon, J. (2015). Community Health and Wellness-E-book: Primary Health Care in Practice. Elsevier Health Sciences. Retrieved on: 5th Feb 2018 From:

https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=C4bBgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=community+health+and+wellness:+primary+healthcare+in+practice&ots=Z696VR9rXn&sig=u3j4ar0AEQCq2caIBFBH2MdBq10#v=onepage&q=community%20health%20and%20wellness%3A%20primary%20healthcare%20in%20practice&f=false

 

 Peate, I. (2016). Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology: For Nursing and Healthcare Students. John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved on: 5th Feb 2018 From:                           

https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=bW2CgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA22&dq=Fundamentals+of+anatomy+and+physiology+for+nursing+and+healthcare+students&ots=5sPyVkEG

 

Ramakrishnan, U., Grant, F., Goldenberg, T., Zongrone, A., & Martorell, R. (2012). Effect of women's nutrition before and during early pregnancy on maternal and infant outcomes: a systematic review. Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology26(s1), 285-301.   . Retrieved on: 5th Feb 2018 From: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.653.8840&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Rankin, J. (2017). Physiology in Childbearing E-Book: With Anatomy and Related Biosciences. London. Elsevier Health Sciences. Retrieved on: 5th Feb 2018 From:

https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=GmglDgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=physiology+in+childbearing+:+with+anatomy+and+related+biosciences&ots=U7sMr30MHv&sig=_585_hFo0gwQDA7qpdjfDlgb0so#v=onepage&q=physiology%20in%20childbearing%20%3A%20with%20anatomy%20and%20related%20biosciences&f=false

 

Wright, L. M., & Leahey, M. (2012). Nurses and families: A guide to family assessment and intervention. United States. FA Davis. . Retrieved on: 5th Feb 2018 From:

https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=_YT2AAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR4&dq=A+nurses+guide+to+professional+boundaries+australia&ots=sKLr8nrTGC&sig=QC4zqGTosMtk6gCZLBn1rPgxMs#v=onepage&q&f=false

 

Xiao, C., Dash, S., Morgantini, C., Hegele, R. A., & Lewis, G. F. (2016). Pharmacological targeting of the atherogenic dyslipidemia complex: the next frontier in CVD prevention beyond lowering LDL cholesterol. Diabetes65(7), 1767-1778.  Retrieved on: 5th Feb 2018 From: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Changting_Xiao/publication/304631443_Pharmacological_Targeting_of_the_Atherogenic_Dyslipidemia_Complex_The_Next_Frontier_in_CVD_Prevention_Beyond_Lowering_LDL_Cholesterol/links/5787934f08ae95560407aa2c.pdf 

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